|Lecturer||Office hours for students|
|Lucia De Crescentini|
Assigned to the Degree Course
The aim of the course is to provide to the students the knowledge of the functional groups of the organic molecules, studying their properties, formation and reactivity, through the study of the main mechanisms, to demonstrate the chemical reactions analyzed.
STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC MOLECULES
Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms; the chemical bond. Hybridization: sp3, sp2 and sp orbitals: single, double and triple bonds. Electronegativity and polarity. The resonance. Acids and bases. Intermolecular bonds.
ALKANES AND CYCLOALKANES
Introduction to the organic chemistry as the chemistry of the carbon. Tetravalent carbon and use of molecular models. Nomenclature. Single, double and triple bonds. Structure of alkanes and cycloalkanes. Structural, brute, condensed and skeletal formulas. Structural and configurational isomers. Conformers: Newman and perspective projections. Physical properties. Reactivity: halogenation and combustion.
Introduction of functional groups as a substrate for the organic reactions. Classification of organic reactions: addition, elimination, substitution. Main reagents: acids and bases according to Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis; nucleophiles and electrophiles. Inductive and conjugative effects. Limit structures of resonance.
ALKENES AND ALKYNES
Nomenclature. Geometric cis and trans isomerization. Rules of CIP. Nomenclature E and Z. Physical properties and acidity. Methods of preparation. Electrophilic addition (Markovnikov reactions). Main electrophilic addition reactions. Redox reactions.
Introduction. Properties of conjugated dienes. Mesomeric effect. 1,2 and 1,4-electrophilic addition.
BENZENE AND ITS DERIVATIVES
Structure of benzene. Aromaticity (Huckel rule). Nomenclature. Physical properties. Electrophilic aromatic substitution and types of reactions. Activating and deactivating substituents. Rules of orientation. Reactions on arenes.
Stereocenter. Fisher formulas and their use. R and S absolute configuration and relative d and l. Enantiomers. Diastereomers, optical rotation.
Nomenclature. Preparation. Main reactions: the Grignard reagents, SN1 and SN2, E1 and E2 reactions.
ACOHOLS, PHENOLS, AND EPOXIDES
Nomenclature, physical properties, preparation, chemical properties: acidity and basicity, reactivity: nucleophilic substitution, elimination, redox.
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
Carbonyl group. Nomenclature. Methods of preparation. Physical properties. Nucleophilic addition reactions. Redox reactions. Reactions on the carbon in alpha position: tautomerism and aldolic condensation.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES
Nomenclature. Preparation. Physical properties. Acidity. Esters: nomenclature, preparation and properties. Saponification. Fatty acids.
Nomenclature of carboxylic acid derivatives. Physical properties. Addition-elimination mechanism (SNA). Reactivity of derivatives. Acidic chlorides. Anhydrides. Amides. Esters. Claisen condensation. Polyfunctional compounds of biochemical interest. Decarboxylation.
-General and inorganic chemistry
Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)
The student will have to demonstrate its mastery of basic knowledge about the general chemistry.
The student must show knowledge and understanding of organic reactions required to produce synthetic processes of relatively complex molecules.
The student must show to apply their knowledge, understanding and skills in solving problems related to the behavior of organic substances.
The student will be able to communicate clearly with a correct and appropriate chemical language his conclusions.
The student will have developed learning skills that will enable him to continue studying in a self-directed or autonomous way.
The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it
Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment
- Course books
John McMurry-CHIMICA ORGANICA-Un approccio biologico-ZANICHELLI
M. Valeria D’Auria, Orazio Taglalatela Scafati, Angela Zampella-GUIDA RAGIONATA ALLO SVOLGIMENTO DI ESERCIZI DI CHIMICA ORGANICA- LOGHIA
The teacher will furnish further informations about the didactic supplies, during the course.
Written examination. In the student will get a mark of 18/30 or more, ha can do the oral examination to better define the final mark.
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