|Lecturer||Office hours for students|
|Giovanni Zappia||Wednesday 11.00-13.00|
Assigned to the Degree Course
|Date||Time||Classroom / Location|
|Date||Time||Classroom / Location|
The objectives of the course are to provide students with a good understanding of the general aspects of organic chemistry, with particular reference to nomenclature, structural features of functional groups. A particular focus will be on the structure, properties and reactivity of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins and lipids.
Introduction to Organic Chemistry. Chemical bonds and carbon hybridization. Electronegativity. Acidity and basicity according to Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis theories.
Alkanes and cycloalkanes: structural and electronic aspects, nomenclature, constitutional isomerism. Cycloalkanes.
Alkenes: structure, nomenclature and isomeric E / Z. Main organic reactions, nucleophiles and electrophiles. Electrophilic addition reactions: hydrohalogenation-reaction mechanism. Intermediate reaction. Carbocations and their stability.
Inductive effect. Hydration, halogenation. Markovnikov’s rule.
Alkynes: structure and nomenclature.
Benzene and aromatic compounds. Aromatic concept. Nomenclature of aromatic systems. Electrophilic aromatic substitution (SEAr): mechanism. Halogenation of benzene: mechanism. Effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation. Activating and deactivating groups. Mesomeric effect and inductive effect. Substituted benzenes.
Alcohols and ethers. Structure and nomenclature. Phenols: acidity. Epoxides.
Stereoisomerism. Chirality, enantiomers. Configuration notation R, S. Cahn-Prelog-Ingold rules. Optical activity, polarimetry. Molecules with two or more stereocenters. Diastereoisomers. Physical and chemical properties of stereoisomers. Racemates. Meso compounds.
Aldehydes and ketones. Structure and nomenclature. Reaction of carbonyl carbon and acidity of hydrogen in alpha position. Nucleophilic addition reactions: mechanism of nucleophilic addition. Addition of alcohols: formation of emiacetals and acetals. Keto-enol tautomerism. Aldehyde condensation.
Carboxylic acids. Structure, nomenclature, acidity, chemical-physical properties. Derivatives of carboxylic acids: acyl chlorides, anhydrides, esters, amides. Fischer Esterification. Esters hydrolysis under basic conditions.
Amines. Structure, classification and nomenclature. Basicity. Aliphatic and aromatic amine basicity scale.
Carbohydrates: aldoses and ketoses. Monosaccharides: glucose and fructose structure. Stereochemistry and relative configuration of sugars. L and D sugars. Fischer and Haworth projections. Open and closed structure. Glucose cyclic hemiacetal and hemiketal. Anomeric effect.
Amino acids. Structure, acid-base properties and zwitterionic form. Relative configuration. Classification of protein amino acids. The peptide bond. Dipeptide.
Triglycerides: fats and oils. Soap and micellar aggregates. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Catalytic hydrogenation of oils. Isomerization cis/trans.
The student should have passed the General and Inorganic Chemistry exam.
The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it
Additional Information for Non-Attending Students
The oral exam will be preceded by a written test, which involves the solution of simple exercises to assess the student's ability to correlate the various issues of the program.
The vote assigned to the writing is determined by the number of exercises carried out. The written test will be considered passed by a vote of 18/30.
The oral test will have the purpose to determine the final vote.
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