Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


UNIT: STRUCTURAL
MODULO: STRUTTURALE

A.Y. Credits
2024/2025 5
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Marco Menichetti
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English French Spanish
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course aims to allow students to acquire basic knowledge on the geometry of the main geological structures. In detail in both fragile and ductile deformation, through description and classification of the geometrical structures (geometric analysis), in order to provide the conceptual elements for the reconstruction of history of the deformational (kinematic analysis) and for the definition of crustal dynamics (dynamic analysis).

Program

1. Methodologies of geometric, kinematic and dynamic analysis of geological structures. The time factor. Coordinate systems in the plane and in space. Vectors and their properties. Descriptive geometry of planes and lines in space. Representation of geological structures. Methods and units of measurement. The three-point problem in space. Topography and gradient. Reading of geological maps. Reflection seismic methods. Concept of isopachs and isochrones (2-hour lesson).
2. Strain, introduction. The kinematics of deformation. Strain measurement. The deformation ellipsoid. Finite strain equations. Shear deformation. Mohr's circle for the finite strain. The main axes of deformation. Non-finite deformation lines. Finite and differential deformation. Deformation path. Deformation in the plane and in 3D (2h lesson).
3. Concepts of force and stress. Unit of measurement of stress. Stress at a point and in the plane. The main stress axes. Stress tensors. Medium, deviatoric and special stress. Construction of the Mohr circle for stress in a however-oriented plane. Mohr's circle in 3D. Stress/strain relationships (2 hours of lessons).
4. Rheology of materials, concept of elasticity, elastic limit and plasticity. Plastic and viscous deformations. Concepts of strain rate, viscosity and creep in rock materials. Environmental factors that influence the response of rocks to stress. Brittle, ductile, cataclastic and crystal plastic behaviour in rocks. Elasticity and compaction. Thermal effect and elasticity. Rock compaction and diagenesis. Role of fluid pressure (4 hours of lessons).
5. Deformation mechanisms. Fracture types and systems. Effect of pore pressure on fracture development. Effect of pre-existing fractures. The concept of friction in the rheology of materials. The mechanism of pressure solution and crystalline plasticity in rocks. Deformation mechanisms for crystalline plasticity. Summary of the different deformation mechanisms in rocks. Flow laws and stress state in the lithosphere (2h lesson).
6. Fracture systems, joints and veins. Faults and joints in fracture systems. Relationships between joints and veins and other geological structures (2h lesson).
7. Faults. Nomenclature and geometry. Apparent and real rejection. Types of direct reverse and strike-slip faults. Fault rocks. Sense of movement and surface effects of faults. Beginning of faults. Determination of the direction of slip. Dynamics and kinematics of faults. Anderson's theory for faults. Calculation of strain and stress from a population of faults. Mechanics of reverse faults and thrusts. Fluid pressure in rocks and the development of faults (4 hours of lessons).
8. Folds – Geometry. Descriptive geometry of the folds. Orientation-based fold nomenclature. Relationships between geometry and kinematics in folds. Classification based on the shape of the folded layers. Geometric and kinematic classification. Superimposed folds. Fold kinematics. Fold dynamics. Types of rock corresponding to different bending skills (4h lesson).
9. Linear minor structures. The boudinage, the foliation, and the lineations due to the intersection between foliations. Cleavage and cleavage terminology, its nature and structural domains. Relationship between cleavage and strain. Foliation development process. The rotation of the grains. Cleavage from solution and crenulation cleavage, cleavage and deformation (2-hour lesson).
10. Cutting zones and their geometry, transposition and direction of cutting. Use of foliation to determine the displacement in shear zones (2h lesson).
11. Overthrusts. Introduction and tectonic contexts. Terminology. Surface detachment tectonics and thrust belts. Basic characteristics of fold-thrust belts and foreland basins. Main geometries in thrust systems. Type of folds in thrust belts. Relationships between folds and faults. Thick-skinned and thin-skinned faulting. Thrust systems and fold chains and their inclusion in the plate tectonics model (4 hours of lessons).
12. Extensional tectonic systems. Analysis of relaxing structures. The gravitational sliding model. Growth faults in subsiding passive margins. Rift tectonics provinces. Category of relaxation facilities. Rotation of planar faults, listric normal faults and low-angle normal faults. Thrust belt concepts applied to relaxing terrain (4h lesson).
13. Strike-slip fault systems. Tectonic context of strike-slip faults. Strike-slip faults and tear faults, transtensional and transpressional systems. Geometries and structures associated with strike-slip faults, pull-apart basins. The structures associated with the termination of strike-slip faults (2h lesson).

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Knowledge and understanding. At the end of the course, the student must have gained the fundamental knowledge in the field Earthquake geology. The student would also master the ability to analyze the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of active and capable faults in a seismotectonic key. . These skills will be evaluated through the oral interview.

Applying knowledge and understanding. The student must correctly use the geological terminology relating to geological structures. In particular, he must be able to know the methodologies for the study of active and capable faults. Furthermore, the student must have the knowledge to contribute, together with other professionals, the assessment of seismic risk. These skills will be tested through the oral exam.

Making judgements. The student must be able to know the structural and morpho-tectonics characteristics of active and capable faults linked to different types of earthquakes mechanics. Furthermore, he must able to frame recent and historical seismicity in a regional context. These skills will be verified through the final exam.

Communication skills. The student must be able to describe and synthesize the geological aspects of the earthquakes, and apply this knowledge in different geological fields and in different tectonic contexts. He must be able to describe the seismo-tectonics of a region using a specific technical language.

Learning skills. The student must build the own path of scientific growth in the earthquake geology in a critical and autonomous way, being able to use the gained knowledge. These abilities, as far as possible, will be stimulated by the lecturer.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

Lab practice with simple material deformation experiments.


Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Lectures, laboratory exercises and eventually, field trips.

Innovative teaching methods

The face-to-face teaching method will be enriched with individual and group exercises and insights that students will carry out using the University's Moodle platform. Some topics of the course will be treated following the practice of the "flipped lesson".

Attendance

There are no attendance obligations for frontal lessons. However, the student is advised to attend at least 2/3 of the laboratory activities, exercises on the ground, seminars and seminar-type training activities.

Course books

Notes from the teacher's lessons.

recommended book:

Fossen H. – Geologia Strutturale . Zanichelli Ed. Bologna – 2020.

Suggested book:

Pollard David D., Martel Stephen J. – Structural geology. A quantitative introduction. Cambridge University Press – 2020.

Assessment

The expected learning outcomes will be assessed with an oral exam based on an interview with several questions. The assessment aimed to evaluate the student's preparation and, in particular, the basic concepts of structural geology, the degree of articulation of the response, the mastery of specific language, and the ability to analyze data. The exam involves an evaluation that is expressed as a grade out of 30.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

Study of recommended books and teacher's notes.

Course books

To allow non-attending students to compensate for what is carried out during the lessons with independent study, the following materials referring to the same program contents are indicated to promote full understanding:

- Notes from the teacher's lessons.

Recommended book:

Fossen H. – Geologia Strutturale . Zanichelli Ed. Bologna – 2020.

Suggested book:

Pollard David D., Martel Stephen J. – Structural geology. A quantitative introduction. Cambridge University Press – 2020.

Assessment

The expected learning outcomes will be assessed with an oral exam based on an interview with several questions aimed at assessing the knowledge of the basic concepts of structural geology, the degree of articulation of the response, the mastery of specific language and the ability to analyze. The exam is assessed with a mark out of thirty.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

« back Last update: 02/07/2024

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