Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2015/2016 9 (4 Lez. + 5 Lab.)
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Annalida Bedini

Assigned to the Degree Course

Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The aim of the course is to learn the theoretical and practical basic knowledge necessary to the preparation, purification and characterization of substances showing pharmaceutical interest and to the isolation and characterization of biological molecules from natural sources. Graduates in Chimica e Tecnologia Farmaceutiche must be aware of the basic techniques used in a synthetic laboratory as well as to acquire the dexterity necessary for the realization of safe synthesis and extraction of molecules of pharmaceutical interest.


Introduction to the Organic Laboratory: safety in the laboratory, planning of the experiments and recording of results. Design and execution of organic synthesis. The impact of various experimental parameters on the execution of organic reactions. Laboratory equipment: assembling components for carrying out typical reactions. Stirring, heating and cooling of reaction mixtures. Excluding moisture from a reaction mixture, reactions under inert atmosphere. Techniques for isolation and purification of products. Filtration techniques and filtering media. Crystallization: theoretical basis, choice of the solvent, simple and fractional crystallization, optical resolution by crystallization. Decolorization and crystal drying. Extraction: theoretical basis, continuous and discontinuous extraction. Extraction of solids and of liquids. Techniques of extraction of natural products (maceration, percolation, infusion, decoction, digestion). Supercritical fluid extraction, microwave extraction, ultrasound extraction. Accelerated solvent extraction and Naviglio extractor. Simple distillation, fractional distillation, vacuum distillation, azeotropic distillation and steam distillation: theory and practical aspects. Evaporation of the solvent. Adsorption chromatography. TLC and column chromatography: equipment and practical aspects. Drying of solids and of organic solvents. Sublimation: theoretical basis and practical aspects of the technique, atmospheric pressure and vacuum sublimation.
Determination of the physical constants of organic compounds: melting point, boiling point, refractive index, specific rotatory power. Laboratory practical is addressed to the synthesis or isolation from natural sources of substances showing pharmaceutical interest and to their characterization by determining chemical-physical constants.

Bridging Courses

To take the exam, the student must attend the laboratory practice and acquire the signature frequency. He must also have passed the examinations of Organic chemistry I, Analysis of drugs I and the Analysis of drugs II.

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Knowledge and understanding. The student should have acquired the basic knowledge useful for the synthesis and extraction of substances of pharmaceutical interest from both a theoretical and practical perspective. The student will be able to understand an experimental procedure concerning the synthesis, extraction and characterization of an organic compound of biological interest.

Applying knowledge and understanding. The student will be able to apply the knowledge acquired during the course, and then be able to conduct practical experiments of synthesis and extraction of substances of pharmaceutical interest, and to appropriately treat a reaction mixture to isolate and purify the desired products through the use of common laboratory procedures.

Making judgements. The student must show independence of judgment in the interpretation of the experimental data and of the obtained results, as well as the ability to plan and conduct an experiment in organic synthesis employing methods explained and implemented experimentally during the course.

Communication skills. After completing the course the student will be able to expose what he has learned using appropriate terminology for the purpose of scientific communication regarding proper methods and issues concerning the preparation and purification of compounds of pharmaceutical interest.

Learning skills. The student will have developed the learn ability useful to continuously update his knowledge and will be able to use it in order to face new synthetic challenges.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

There are no activities to support teaching.

Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment


Lectures (4 cfu) and laboratory practice (5 cfu) conducted in groups whose number depends on the number of students attending the course (usually two or three students per group).


To attend the laboratory practical and acquire the signature frequency, it is necessary to have attended the course Analysis of drugs II and passed the examination of Organic Chemistry I.

Course books

R.M. Roberts, J.C. Gilbert, S.F. Martin “Experimental Organic Chemistry. A Miniscale Approach” (Italian or English version).

L.Pavia, G.M. Lampman, G. S. Kriz “Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques”.

Lecture notes.

Reference book: Vogel's Textbook of practical organic chemistry. Longman Scientific and Techical.


The methods of assessment of learning outcomes are based on an ongoing evaluation and an oral examination. Ongoing evaluation takes into account the the progress made by the student from a practical point of view, and lab reports that every student is required to prepare for each experience and to deliver regularly to the teacher. These reports, useful to obtain the signature frequency, contribute to the final evaluation of the student. The oral exam consists of questions about theoretical and practical aspects of the issues addressed during the course. It will be also evaluated the student's ability to connect the topics covered and to solve practical problems.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students



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