Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE

A.Y. Credits
2016/2017 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Michele Guescini Reception of students by appointment
Teaching in foreign languages
Course partially taught in a foreign language English
This course is taught partially in Italian and partially in a foreign language. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Physical education for health and prevention (LM-67)
Curriculum: RIEDUCAZIONE FUNZIONALE
Giorno Orario Aula

Learning Objectives

The course aims to provide students with basic knowledge on fundamental processes of molecular biology and their mechanisms of regulation needed to understand the causes of genetic diseases and those related to physical inactivity. Particular attention will be given to the molecular biology of mitochondria, the gene expression changes that occur in metabolic diseases, and the effect of exercise on them. To do so it will be considered the recent literature on the subject.

Program

The course will address the following topics in the order below:

The eukaryotic genome

- Chromatin structure

- DNA replication;

- Telomeres: structure, function and maintenance;

- DNA mutations;

- Mechanisms of DNA repair.

Gene expression and its regulation

- The concept of the gene;

- Overview of transcriptional regulation;

- Elements of regulatory genes that encode for proteins;

- The general machinery of transcription;

- The transcription in eukaryotes;

- Transcription factors;

- Transcriptional coactivators and co-repressors;

- Regulated nuclear import and pathways of signal transduction;

- Processes of messenger RNA maturation and modification and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression;

- Elements of epigenetics;

- MicroRNAs: biogenesis and function.

Translation in eukaryotes

- The versatility of RNA;

- Start, elongation and termination of translation in eukaryotes;

- Translational and post-translational control.

Mitochondrial DNA

- The structure and replication of mitochondrial DNA;

- Mitochondrial transcription and translation;

- The transport of mitochondrial proteins;

- Crosstalk between the mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA

The recombinant DNA technology and tools for gene expression analysis. Outline of various techniques and their potentials

Modifications of gene expression of skeletal muscle in metabolic diseases and in particular in the subject.

Effects of aerobic exercise benefits in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases

- Role of the "master regulator" PGC-1 alpha in the regulation of oxidative metabolism;

- The AMP-dependent protein kinase as an energy sensor;

- Mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle;

- Mechanisms of activity regulation of GLUT-4;

- Molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and muscle atrophy;

- Satellite cell role in maintaining muscle homeostasis;

- Modulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle immobility;

- Molecular basis of metabolic diseases and aging;

- Sarcopenia;

- Prevention of Type 2 diabetes through exercise

Bridging Courses

No bridging courses

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

- The student must show competences of basic knowledge about the fundamental processes of molecular biology of eukaryotes, the gene expression changes in response to immobility and chronic diseases, and the benefits induced by exercise in the prevention and treatment of such conditions.

- The student will demonstrate knowledge of the molecular mechanisms associated with chronic diseases or the benefits of exercise in the prevention and treatment of such conditions; The student should be also able to analyze the conditions of the subject and, in relation to these, suggest a personalized training program in order to prevent and / or treat the pathological condition in order to improve the quality of life.

- The student must show the ability to use knowledge and concepts that can help plan a personalized physical exercise training in order to achieve specific objectives in charge. In particular, to design / prescribe exercise programs aimed at increasing aerobic capacity, strength, muscle hypertrophy, and / or glycemic control.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

There are no supporting activities to teaching


Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Didactics

Frontal lessons

Attendance

There is no compulsory attendance

Course books

The course program is developed in two main parts: the first part deals with basic Molecular Biology, and the second part on the molecular biology associated with metabolic diseases and the positive effects of exercise in the prevention and treatment of such diseases.

Regarding the first part it is possible to use one of the following books:

- Lizabeth A. Allison "Fundamentals of Molecular Biology". Zanichelli

- Nancy L. Craig, Orna Cohen-Fix, Rachel Green, Carol W. Greider, Gisela Storz, Cynthia Wolberger "Molecular Biology - genome Operating Principles". Pearson;

- Francesco Amaldi, Piero Benedetti, Graziano Pesole, Paul Plevani "Molecular Biology". Casa Editrice Ambrosiana);

- Benjamin Lewin, Jocelyn E. Krebs, Elliott S. Goldstein, Stephen T. Kilpatrick "The gene X". Zanichelli.

For the second part, concerning physical exercise adaptations, it is possible to consult the following texts:

- Neil Spurway and Henning Wackerhage "Genetics and molecular biology of muscle adaptation". Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

- - Scientific articles on the subject (available on Moodle platform).

Slides and lecture notes are available on the Moodle platform.

Assessment

Oral interview to establish the basic knowledge about the molecular aspects of biology and the mastery in the application of discipline to the understanding of the effects of exercise, particularly to skeletal muscle.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Didactics

Frontal lessons

Attendance

There is no compulsory attendance

Course books

The course program is developed in two main parts: the first part deals with basic Molecular Biology, and the second part on the molecular biology associated with metabolic diseases and the positive effects of exercise in the prevention and treatment of such diseases.

Regarding the first part it is possible to use one of the following books:

- Lizabeth A. Allison "Fundamentals of Molecular Biology". Zanichelli

- Nancy L. Craig, Orna Cohen-Fix, Rachel Green, Carol W. Greider, Gisela Storz, Cynthia Wolberger "Molecular Biology - genome Operating Principles". Pearson;

- Francesco Amaldi, Piero Benedetti, Graziano Pesole, Paul Plevani "Molecular Biology". Casa Editrice Ambrosiana);

- Benjamin Lewin, Jocelyn E. Krebs, Elliott S. Goldstein, Stephen T. Kilpatrick "The gene X". Zanichelli.

For the second part, concerning physical exercise adaptations, it is possible to consult the following texts:

- Neil Spurway and Henning Wackerhage "Genetics and molecular biology of muscle adaptation". Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

- - Scientific articles on the subject (available on Moodle platform).

Slides and lecture notes are available on the Moodle platform.

Assessment

Oral interview to establish the basic knowledge about the molecular aspects of biology and the mastery in the application of discipline to the understanding of the effects of exercise, particularly to skeletal muscle.

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