BIOCHIMICA DELLA NUTRIZIONE
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|Teaching in foreign languages|
Course with optional materials in a foreign language
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.
Assigned to the Degree Course
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The course provides basic principles of nutritional biochemistry and the biological mechanisms underlying the relationships between nutrient intakes, nutrient utilization, genetic factors and the development of disease and maintenance of health.
1)Food and nutrition. Use and meaning of terms. Nutritional standards and dietary guidelines. RDAs, confidence intervals and adequacy of intake of food, and the food guide pyramid. Food definition and classes of food. Macronutrients and micronutrients. Anti-nutritive factors and toxic molecules in natural foods.
2)Proteins. Meaning nutritional of proteins and energy value. Amino acids: functional, nutritional and metabolic classification. Metabolic fates of amino acids, glucogenic amino acids, ketogenic and mixed. Protein turnover. Nutritional value of proteins and regulation of nitrogen balance. Complementation of food proteins. Protein requirements. Phenylketonuria. Celiac disease. Protein-energy malnutrition: kwashiorkor and marasmus as models of biochemical lesion.
3)Carbohydrates. Nutritional biochemistry of main carbohydrates in the diet and energy value; glycemic index and glycemic load values and their biochemical significance. Role of available carbohydrate. The dietary fiber. Levels of introduction of dietary fiber.
4)Lipids. Classification and chemical composition. Major lipids in the diet and energy value. Fatty acids of nutritional interest: saturated and unsaturated, essential fatty acids, trans fatty acids. Lipid requirements. Mobilization of the reserves of triacylglycerols. Dietary and endogenous cholesterol: Assessment of cholesterol in the body. Transport of cholesterol and other lipids by plasma lipoproteins. Non-pharmacological control of plasma cholesterol. Regulation of gene expression of lipogenic enzymes induced by a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (SREBP-SCAP and nuclear receptors PPAR). Eicosanoids. Endocannabinoids.
5)Water. Exogenous and endogenous water. Water needs. Total body water content. Water loss in the body. Disorders of water balance. Water as food.
6)Ethanol. Alcoholic beverages. Absorption and distribution of ethanol. Ethanol metabolism: alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, microsomal ethanol-oxidising system (MEOS). Metabolic changes induced by ethanol on glucose and lipid metabolism.
7)Distribution of energy reserves. Metabolic adaptations in caloric restriction and fasting.
8)Diet-genome interactions. Nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic
9)Food-drug interaction. 1) Food-Drug Interaction: foods rich in vitamin K, drinks rich in tannins; foods containing fiber, grapefruit juice, alcohol. 2) Drug-Nutrient Interactions: laxatives, antibiotics, antiacids
Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)
D1- KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
In order to pass this course, the student must demonstrate that he has acquired knowledge about:
-composition, nutritional value and biochemical significance of foods;
-interactions between food components major and minor (macronutrients, vitamins, phytochemicals, oligonutrients, fibers, etc.);
-relationship between diet, nutrition and health, based on an understanding of the specific metabolic role of the different classes of nutrients and bioactive compounds present in foods.
D2-APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The student must demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and theories provided by the course.
The student must demonstrate that he must be able to:
-transfer to scientific contexts the theoretical information acquired in the course, in order to get useful goods and services;
-valorize food containing bioactive compounds designed to prevent diseases of high social impact typical of industrialized countries;
-analyze, discuss and perform simple correlations of data or assumptions.
In order to play a proper nutritional information the student must demonstrate the ability to:
-use a proper and specific language and also the knowledge to support interdisciplinary arguments
-discuss and communicate the effects of metabolic factors on food quality and safety and their impact on health.
D5-LIFELONG LEARNING SKILLS
The student must be able to consult and understand scientific texts, bibliographic updates, current normative, in order to employ them in unusual contexts for the profession and for research.
The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it
The teaching material and specific communications from the lecturer can be found, together with other supporting activities, inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it
Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment
Oral lessons with PC and overhead projector for Power Point presentations
- Course books
U.LEUZZI, E. BELLOCCO, D.BARRECA, Biochimica della Nutrizione. Zanichelli Editore
All the chapters of the text must be studied fully. The topics presented in Sections 4, 12 and 13 are not carried out.
The slides are available to students
The assessment provides a single final exam, consisting in an oral test
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