Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


MOLECULAR BASIS OF MUSCLE ADAPTATION TO EXERCISE
BASI MOLECOLARI DELL'ADATTAMENTO MUSCOLARE ALL'ESERCIZIO FISICO

A.Y. Credits
2018/2019 8
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Michele Guescini
Teaching in foreign languages
Course partially taught in a foreign language English
This course is taught partially in Italian and partially in a foreign language. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Sport Sciences (LM-68)
Curriculum: PERCORSO COMUNE
Giorno Orario Aula
Giorno Orario Aula

Learning Objectives

The course is aimed at studying the molecular mechanisms that underlie the control of gene expression in skeletal muscle and the molecular biology of mitochondria, in relation to physical exercise and to different training methods. Particular attention will be paid to techniques of molecular biology to study the modification of gene expression in muscle tissue. To do so it will be considered the recent literature on the subject

Program

The course will address the following topics in the order below:

The eukaryotic genome

- Chromatin structure

- DNA replication;

- Telomeres: structure, function and maintenance;

- DNA mutations;

- Mechanisms of the mutation repair.

Gene expression and its regulation

- The concept of the gene;

- Overview of transcriptional regulation;

- Elements of regulatory genes that encode for proteins;

- The general machinery of transcription;

- The transcription process in eukaryotes;

- Transcription factors;

- Transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors;

- Regulated nuclear import and pathways of signal transduction;

- Processes of maturation and messenger RNA modification and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression;

- Elements of epigenetics;

- MicroRNAs: biogenesis and function.

Translation in eukaryotes

- The versatility of RNA;

- Translation in eukaryotes: Start, elongation and termination;

- Translational and post-translational control.

Mitochondrial DNA

- The structure and replication of mitochondrial DNA;

- Transcription and translation in the mitochondria;

- The transport of mitochondrial proteins;

- The crosstalk between mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA

Molecular biology techniques used for the study of muscle tissue

- The Bergström needle biopsy;

- The micro-biopsy;

- Application of the "Fine Needle Aspiration" technique to study skeletal muscle gene expression;

- Use of bio-circulating markers: microRNA, extracellular vesicles, miokynes.

Muscle plasticity

- Molecular adaptations of skeletal muscle to different modes of exercise.

- Adaptations to aerobic exercise;

- PGC-1 alpha: "master switch" in determining the fiber composition of skeletal muscle tissue;

- Fiber specific activities of PGC-1 alpha and oxidative enzymes;

- Role of AMP-dependent protein kinase in the regulation of molecular adaptations to aerobic exercise;

- Biogenesis of mitochondria in skeletal muscle;

- Regulation of the synthesis and activity of GLUT-4.

- Molecular mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy: IGF1-AKT-mTOR signaling in the control of muscle growth;

- Muscular Atrophy: IGF1-AKT-FoxO signaling;

- Myostatin and cell turnover;

- Role of satellite cells in muscle remodeling

The genetic basis of sports performance

Gene doping

Bridging Courses

No bridging courses

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

- The student must show competences of basic knowledge about the fundamental processes of molecular biology, and the gene expression adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to different types of exercise.

- The student will demonstrate knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlining the plasticity of skeletal muscle in response to exercise and be able to analyze these adaptations in relation to a training program and identify any weaknesses and strengths.

- The student must show the ability to use knowledge and concepts that can help to plan a customized physical training program in order to achieve specific objectives. In particular, to design / prescribe exercise programs aimed at increasing aerobic capacity, strength and / or muscle hypertrophy.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

There are no supporting activities to teaching


Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Didactics

Frontal lessons

Attendance

There is no compulsory attendance

Course books

The course program is developed in two main parts: the first part deals with basic Molecular Biology, and the second part examines in depth physical exercise.

Regarding the first part it is possible to use one of the following books:

- Lizabeth A. Allison "Fundamentals of Molecular Biology". Zanichelli

- Nancy L. Craig, Orna Cohen-Fix, Rachel Green, Carol W. Greider, Gisela Storz, Cynthia Wolberger "Molecular Biology - genome Operating Principles". Pearson;

- Francesco Amaldi, Piero Benedetti, Graziano Pesole, Paul Plevani "Molecular Biology". Casa Editrice Ambrosiana);

- Benjamin Lewin, Jocelyn E. Krebs, Elliott S. Goldstein, Stephen T. Kilpatrick "The gene X". Zanichelli.

For the second part, concerning physical exercise adaptations, it is possible to consult the following texts:

- Henning Wackerhage "Molecular Exercise Physiology. An introduction ". Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group;

- Neil Spurway and Henning Wackerhage "Genetics and molecular biology of muscle adaptation". Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Slides and lecture notes are available on the Moodle platform.

Assessment

Expected learning outcomes will be evaluated through an oral interview that will take into account: knowledge and understanding skills (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); Consciousness and understanding ability applied (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); judgment autonomy (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); communicative abilities (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); ability to learn (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient).

The oral test is expressed in thirty.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Didactics

Frontal lessons

Attendance

There is no compulsory attendance

Course books

The course program is developed in two main parts: the first part deals with basic Molecular Biology, and the second part examines in depth physical exercise.

Regarding the first part it is possible to use one of the following books:

- Lizabeth A. Allison "Fundamentals of Molecular Biology". Zanichelli

- Nancy L. Craig, Orna Cohen-Fix, Rachel Green, Carol W. Greider, Gisela Storz, Cynthia Wolberger "Molecular Biology - genome Operating Principles". Pearson;

- Francesco Amaldi, Piero Benedetti, Graziano Pesole, Paul Plevani "Molecular Biology". Casa Editrice Ambrosiana);

- Benjamin Lewin, Jocelyn E. Krebs, Elliott S. Goldstein, Stephen T. Kilpatrick "The gene X". Zanichelli.

For the second part, concerning physical exercise adaptations, it is possible to consult the following texts:

- Henning Wackerhage "Molecular Exercise Physiology. An introduction ". Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group;

- Neil Spurway and Henning Wackerhage "Genetics and molecular biology of muscle adaptation". Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Slides and lecture notes are available on the Moodle platform.

Assessment

Expected learning outcomes will be evaluated through an oral interview that will take into account: knowledge and understanding skills (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); Consciousness and understanding ability applied (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); judgment autonomy (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); communicative abilities (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient); ability to learn (6, excellent, 5, good, 4 sufficient, 3 insufficient).

The oral test is expressed in thirty.

« back Last update: 23/08/18

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