Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2019/2020 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Bruno Tirillini On appointment
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology (LM-13)
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The basic knowledge of the botany is the main purpose of this course, moreover, the description of the main secondary metabolites are take into account. The knowledge of botany is necessary for the description of the more useful medicinal plant some of these are discuss in the second part of the course. The knowledge of the secondary metabolite will be helpful in the study of the compounds synthesized by medicinal plants that are the basis of the drug actions. The course is planned in a way that the undergraduate will be self-sufficient in the grasp of the medicinal plants other than that are discussed during the course.


First  part

Botany systematics. Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. Apical meristems, xylem, phloem, secretory cells and tissues, epidermis. Root: structure of the root primary and secondary  body, mycorrhizae. Stem: development of the stele, structure of the stem primary and secondary  body, unusual steles. Leaf: structure of foliage leaves, morphology, development. Flower: morphology. Seed: concepts, embryo development. Fruit: morphology and botanic classification.

Second part

Plant taxonomy : identification and classification of plants. System of rules that standardizes scientific classification. Description of the main botany families. Description of the main medicinal plants.

Third part

Phytochemistry. Chemical description of the secondary metabolites. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, cyclitols, branched-chain sugars and sugar alcohols, cellulose, starch, fructans, mannose-based polysaccharides, pectic polysaccharides, chitin, exudate gums, algal polysaccharides. Terpenoids: mevalonate pathway, monoterpenoids, iridoids, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid lactones, abscisic acid, diterpenoids, gibberellins, triterpenoids, cardenolides, phytosterols, saponins, carotenoids, rubber and related polyprenols, degraded terpenoids, sesterterpenoids. Essential oils. Phenolics: shikimate pathway, polyketides pathway, phenols and phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarins, and chromones), lignins, stilbenes, flavones and flavonols, chalcones and aurones, flavanoids, anthocyanins, biflavonoids, tannins, isoflavonoids, quinones, xanthones. Amines, cyanogenic glycosides, alkaloids (tropane alkaloids, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, quinolizidine alkaloids, pyrrole alkaloids, pyrrolidine alkaloids, pyridine alkaloids, piperidine alkaloids, quinoline alkaloids, indole alkaloids, isoquinoline alkaloids, diterpenoid alkaloids, steroidal alkaloids, polyhydroxy alkaloids), betalains. Glucosinolate, dithiacyclohexadienes, and thiophenes.

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Applying knowledge and understanding

Graduates will be able to recognize the most common medicinal plants and the related phytochemical compounds

Knowledge and understanding

This course gives a useful bit of botanical information on medicinal plants and is a preparatory course to other course concerning the pharmacognosy.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment


Classroom lessons with audiovisual aids

Course books

Slides provided by the teacher

E. Maugini, L. Maleci Bini, M. Mariotti Lippi. Manuale di Botanica Farmaceutica.Ed. Piccin.

B. Tirillini. Fondamenti di Fitochimica. Ed. Akros, Arbizzano di Negrar.


Written test. The test consists of drawing a chemistry formula and in 30 open randomly selected random questions between a database derived from slides provided to students and topics taught in class, 10 questions are phytochemical and the other 20 are related to the rest of the program . Off-course students must support the written test.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

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