Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2020/2021 7
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Luca Giorgi Fryday 9 -12 h on-line. Please send an e-mail for appointment.
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology (LM-13)
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

Students will acquire the fundamental knowledge on Phisical Chemistry with particular regard towards chemical equilibria and kynetics. He also will learn how to solve practical and numerical problems.


1)Internal energy of a system, Temperature, equipartition if kinetic energy theory, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution model 

2) Ideal gases, kinetic theory, state equation, real gases, compressibility index, virial equation, Van der Waals equation, Boyle temperature, critical temperature and critical parameters

3) Thermodynamics, systems, heat and work, zero principle, thermodynamics first law, enthalpy, heat capacities, reversible and irreversible processes

4) Ideal gases transformations, isobar, isovolumetric, isotherm, adiabatic, cyclic transformations, state functions, Carnot cycle, heat engines, yield,  refrigerants, performance coefficient

5) Thermodynamics second law, Clausius and Kelvin statements, entropy, Clausius inequality, statistical interpretation of entropy,  spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, Helmoltz and Gibbs fee energies, Gibbs-Helmoltz equation

6) Chemical thermodynamics, phase transition enthalpy and entropy, theromodynamics third law, absolute entropy, chemical reactions, standard states definition, reaction standard entalpy, Hess law, standard enthalpy of formation, Kirchhoff law, reaction standard entropy, standard reaction free energy

7) Fundamental equation of chemical thermodynamics, chemical potential, chemical potential of a gas, fugacity

8) Phase equilibrium, one component systems, phase rule, Clapeyron equation, Clapeyron-Clausius equation

9) Solutions, ideal solutions, chemical potential of a pure liquid, chemical potential of a solution component, Raoult law, diluted ideal solutions, Henry law, phase diagram of a two component system, distillation, azeotropic mixtures

10) Colligative properties, thermodinamic justification for the colligative properties, ebullioscopy, cryoscopy, osmosis

11) Chemical equilibrium, reaction free energy as a function of the system composition, reaction quozient, equilibrium constant, temperature effect

12) Electrochemistry, galvanic cells, electrodes, reduction standard potential, electromotive force, Nernst law, Latimer diagrams

13) Chemical kynetics, rate of a reaction, kynetic equation, kynetic constant, reaction order, integration of first and second order kynetic equation, linearization, self-life, temperature effect, Arrhenius law, activation energy

14) Reaction mechanisms, transition state, activated complex, one step reactions, multi-step reactions, Hammond principle

15) Catalysis, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, enzymatic catalysis, Michaelis-Menten model

16) Atomic model, continuous and discontinous emission spectra, principles of quantum-mechanics, Schroedinger equation, wave functions, hydrogen atomic orbitals, orbital quantum numbers, spin

17) Polyelectronic atoms, electronic configuration, aufbau rules, Pauli principle, Hund rule, closerd-shell and open-shell atoms, mycrostates and states, spectral therms, excyted states, singlet and triplet states, selection rules

18) Molecules, valence bond model (VB), sigma and pi-greco bonds, molecular orbital model (MO), Born-Oppenheimer approximation, LCAO approximation, vibrational and rotational levels

19) Principles of molecular spectroscopy, fluorescence and phosphorescence emission, Jablonsky diagram, deactivation of excited states

Bridging Courses

For a better comprehension of the arguments trated in the course, studend need to have solid knowledge about general chemistry, mathematics and physycs.

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

  • D1 - Knowledge and understanding ability. Students will be able to describe the foundamental principles of thermodynamics, kynetics and chemical structure of atoms and molecules, and to relate these topics with principles of general chemistry learned in the first semester. Moreover it must learn the mathematical techniques useful to solve pratical problems. This ability will be ascertained in an oral examination.
  • D2 - Application of knowledge and understanding. Students will be able to use the physical chemistry laws with the aim to explain the behaviour of a chemical substance in a complex system, and in particular they will be apble to apply these principle in the pharmaceutical field (distribution, binding, clearance, self-life, enzimatc reactions of drugs). The achievement of these abilities will be tested through an oral examination.
  • D3 - Judgement autonomy. Student will focus their attention on the phisycal chemical models suitable for solve a real problem o to interpret a series of experimental data, and it will be able to choice the model that better fit with the problem. The achievement of these abilities will be tested through the written examination and oral questions aimed at estimate them.
  • D4 - Communication ability. Students will be able to clearly describe the physical-chemical phenomena learned in the course with appropriate language and examples.
  • D5 - Learnning ability. Students will be able to grow autonomously and critically their scientific knowledges by using the teaching material provided by the teacher and any other book or scientific article provided by themselves. These abilities will be stimulated by the teacher proposing and resolving numeric problems.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

Numerical exercices in classroom

Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment


Frontal lessons


Not mandatory but strongly encouraged

Course books

P.W. Atkins, J. De Paula. Elements of Physical Chemistry. 7th edition (Oxford, 2016), ISBN: 9780198727873


The final exam is aimed at verifying the acquired knowledge and skills. It consists of a written test of two hours, followed by an oral exam.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students


All didactic material can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it


Not mandatory

Course books

P.W. Atkins, J. De Paula. Elements of Physical Chemistry. 7th edition (Oxford, 2016), ISBN: 9780198727873


The final exam is aimed at verifying the acquired knowledge and skills. It consists of a written test of two hours, followed by an oral exam.

« back Last update: 20/06/2021


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