Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
FILOSOFIA DELLA SCIENZA

A.Y. Credits
2021/2022 12
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Gino Tarozzi Before and after lessons
Teaching in foreign languages
Course partially taught in a foreign language English
This course is taught partially in Italian and partially in a foreign language. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

Science describes, explains and discovers natural phenomena, and since it adopted the Galileian method it gave us a scientific image of the world which influences all of our knowledge. Science has been considered as the basis of techniques and technology, and some thought it could substitute metaphysics.  Philosophy of science tries to find out what is the nature of science, in particular: what is the hypothetic-deductive method; what is a scientific theory; what role is played by observation; what is the importance of theorization; whether the objects posited by theories are real or just instrumental concepts; why and how theories change and are substituted by new theories.

Thus some of the goals of the course  are the following: mapping the fundamental concepts of contemporary science; learning the foundations of the empirical sciences;  analyzing them epistemologically; learning the logical structure of Quantum mechanics; becoming acquainted with some particularly significant case-studies; making some first-hand experiences of the processes of measurement, data processing and easy computational tasks; becoming aware of the philosophical impact of contemporary science. In working on these objectives the course will provide a general introduction to the philosophy of science.

The course is also intended to improve the students'  logico-analytic and dialectic abilities, their philosophical sensibility, and the mastership of concepts and contents from the history of philosophy they have acquired in their bachelor program. There are no pre-requisites for this course, but because of the rather abstract and rigorous character of its topics, it is advisable to attend classes regularly and actively, since the very beginning. Those unable to attend classes can study on their own the texts listed in the section below for "NON FREQUENTANTI", but this will require careful work and a good attitude to autonomous learning, analysis and abstract thought.

Program

The relationships between physics and philosophy investigated in research on the foundations of quantum mechanics, suggest the possibility of a reformulation of the main metaphysical principles, concepts and questions in the history of scientific and philosophical thought, like realism, causality, holism, nothing, and the mind-body problem, in terms of empirical meaningful philosophical principles. We shows, moreover, that these meaningful principles can be usefully compared with the descriptions of the world provided by fundamental physical theories.

Bridging Courses

no prerequisites

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Dublin Descriptors Knowledge and understanding

After the course students should be able to understand and explain philosophical texts of medium difficulty, discuss some of the classical problems in philosophy of science, use the bibliographical tools and repertories available in this field, know some of the state of the art questions on scientific theories

Applying knowledge and understanding

After the course students should be able to discuss and evaluate various claims and arguments both in the specialistic debate and in the general contemporary cultural debate. 

Making judgementsAfter the course students should be able to make autonomous and original judgements about the arguments in the debate and  the examples drawn from  scientific knowledge. To this end discussions in the classroom will be encouraged. Originality and autonomous judgement will be part of the final evalution of the student's performance 

Communication skills

After the course students should be able to explain and discuss the relevant topics with conceptual and linguistic exactness, and to offer efficacious  and synthetic accounts of the subject matter. To this end, verbal interaction in the classroom and a careful reading and analysis of the relevant texts will be encouraged

 Learning skills

After the course students should be acquainted with the subject matter and the method of research enough to be able to proceed on their own  in gathering further knowledge from the literature in the field and in contiguous fields. To this end they should also improve their ability to read English texts in the field.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Class lectures; course papers; laboratories and seminars.The course will work interactively. Non Italian students will  be allowed to use English for all their required readings, questions and comments in the classroom, and in the final exam.

Attendance

Since the topics are complex and the course aims to be interactive, it is strongly advisable to attend classes regularly since the beginning, and to complete promptly the readings or exercises assigned each time. Attendance will not be very  fruitful unless one follows the largest part of classes, and after missing a class  one should immediately inquire about the topics that have been discussed in it.

Course books

MIND

G. Tarozzi, "The Principle of Empiricism and Quantum Theory", Epistemologia III, 13-28 (1980)

G. Tarozzi, "The Theory of Observations, Wigner Paradox and the Mind-Body Problem", Epistemologia IV , 37-52 (1981)

G. Tarozzi, “Quantum Measurements and Macrophysical Reality: Epistemological Implications of a Proposed Paradox", Foundations of Physics 26 , 907-917 (1996)

G. Tarozzi, I. Tassani, "The Role of Conscioussnes in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics",special issue of Teorie e Modelli, pp.45-63 (2001)

A.Afriat, "Stati mentali agenti istantaneamente a grande distanza su stati fisici. Un ulteriore paradosso quantistico per la relazione mente-materia", Teorie e Modelli, special issue, pp.45-63 (2005)

C. Calosi, G.Tarozzi,  “Is the Mind a Quantum Computer?” with, Epistemologia , XXXVI, pp. 194-206 (2013)

CHANCE

G.Tarozzi, "Probability and Determinism in Quantum Theory", in Probability in the Sciences, ed. by E. Agazzi, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1988), pp. 237-259

G. Tarozzi, "On the Different Forms of Quantum Acausality", in The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics , ed. by C. Garola e A. Rossi, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1995); pp.435-447

G. Filippini, G.Tarozzi, "Il rifiuto della causalità nella filosofia della fisica prequantistica", Mem. Acc. Naz. Sci. Lett. Arti, Modena , VII, XI, 97-104 (1993)

G. Tarozzi, “L’utopia causale. Dal demone di Laplace alla retroazione del futuro sul passato”, in Utopie. Percorsi per immaginare il futuro, L. Mazzoli and G. Zanchini eds. Codice Edizioni, Torino; pp. 167-192 (2012)

NOTHING

A. Afriat, G. Tarozzi, "Can Nothing Cause Nonlocal Quantum Jumps?", in Quantum Mechanics. Are There Quantum Jumps? ed. by A. Bassi et al., American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York (2006); pp. 3-7

P. Graziani, G. Tarozzi, “Physics, Metaphysics and the Reality of Nothing in Quantum Mechanics”, in Science, Metaphysics and Religion. Proceedings of the 2013 AIPS Conference, ed, by E. Agazzi, Franco Angeli, Milan (2014); p. 117-128

WHOLE

C. Calosi, V. Fano, G. Tarozzi, “Holism as an empirically meaningful metaphysical hypothesis”, , Epistemologia, vol. 35, p. 45-57 (2012)

C. Calosi, G. Tarozzi, “Parthood and Composition in Quantum Mechanics”, with C. Calosi, in Mereology and the Sciences, ed. by C. Calosi and P. Graziani, Berlin: Springer: 53-84 (2014)

REALITY

G. Tarozzi, "Realism as a Meaningful Philosophical Hypothesis", Mem. Acc. Sci. Bologna VII, XIII, 89-98 (1980)

G. Tarozzi, "Realisme d'Einstein et mècanique quantique: un cas de contradiction entre une théorie physique et un hypothèse philosophique clairement définie", Revue de Synthèse 101-102, 125-158 (1981)

G. Tarozzi, "On the Essential Role of the Realist Hypothesis in All Derivations of E.P.R.-type Paradoxes", Epistemologia IV,  407-422 (1981)

G. Tarozzi, "Local Realism and Bell's Theorem Without the Hidden Variable Hypothesis", Mem. Acc. Sci. Torino 108 , 119-124 (1981)

F. Selleri, G. Tarozzi, "A Probabilistic Generalisation of the Concept of Physical Reality", , Speculations in Science and Technology 6, 55-64 (1983)

G. Tarozzi, "Physical Reality: from the Metaphysical Notion to its Empirical Definition", in The Concept of Physical Reality , Zacheropoulos, Atene (1983), pp. 197-215

V. Fano, G. Tarozzi, "Realismo empirico e meccanica quantistica", in Ancora sul realismo , ed. by G. Giuliani, University of Pavia and Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici, Pavia (1995); pp. 144-168

M. Alai, G. Auletta, “Einstein's Local Realism and the Realistic Interpretation of the Wave Function” in Albert Einstein et Hermann Weyl (1955-2005). Questions épistémologiques Ouvertes. p. 33-49, Editions Rue d'Ulm, ISBN: 8861870236 (2009)

C. Sedda, G. Tarozzi,“To See or not to See the Dual Nature of Quantum Objects? Self-Interference of Electrons in Motion Pictures as a Proof of of the Realist Interpretation of the Schrödinger Wave Function” in Proceedings XXX conference SISFA. ed. by R. Mantovani, Argalia, Urbino, pp. 231-238 (2012)

THE MEANING OF PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES

G. Tarozzi,"Science, Metaphysics and Meaningful Philosophical Principles ", Epistemologia, 11 (1988), pp. 97-104 and 229-23

G. Tarozzi, "Interprétation realiste et niveaux de contrôlabilité de la theorie quantique", in L'objectivité dans les differentes sciences ,  ed. by E. Agazzi, Editiones Universitaires, Fribourg (1988), pp. 153-163

G. Tarozzi,"Principi filosofici e principi della fisica. La riapertura delle controversie metafisiche nel dibattito sui fondamenti della meccanica quantistica", in Lezioni in memoria di Giuliano Preparata, with M. Pera, M. Fleischmann, E. Del Giudice, Bibliopolis, Napoli (2006); pp. 21-39

G. Tarozzi, “Logical Positivism, Quantum Mechanics and the Meaning of Philosophical Principles”, in The Controversial Relations between Science and Philosophy, ed. by G. Auletta, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City (2006); pp. 129-166

G. Tarozzi, “Fisica, metafisica e criteri di conferma empirici, Giornale di fisica, vol. 50, p. 51-61 (2009)

During classes the teacher will specify which texts are strictly required for the exam and which ones are not. Some texts will be available on the Blended learning webpage of the course. Should any text be unavailable contact the teacher. 

Assessment

The achievement of learning objectives will be assessed through an oral exam, intended to ascertain what and how much the student has learned both about the basic concepts of the discipline, and about the most important historical developments relevant to the topics of the course, but also their comprehension and capacity to discuss in a critical and possibly original way the topics of classes and assigned readings.

  Active participation in class discusion and exercises will also be taken into account.

During classes the teachers will specify which texts are strictly required for the exam and which ones are not.

Non Italian students will be allowed to use English (or French or Spanish) for all their required readings, questions and comments in the classroom, and for the final exam.

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

THOSE UNABLE TO ATTEND CLASSES will study on their own (individually or with others) according to the directions of this vademecum and if possible with the help which can be given by the teachers during office hours or through e-mail, Skype, etc. The files of lecture notes will also be made available on the platform Moodle › https://blended.uniurb.it. In order to benefit form the interactive character of the course, students not attending classes can fix with one of the teachers the argument of a term paper.

Attendance

none

Course books

MIND

G. Tarozzi, "The Principle of Empiricism and Quantum Theory", Epistemologia III, 13-28 (1980)

G. Tarozzi, "The Theory of Observations, Wigner Paradox and the Mind-Body Problem", Epistemologia IV , 37-52 (1981)

G. Tarozzi, “Quantum Measurements and Macrophysical Reality: Epistemological Implications of a Proposed Paradox", Foundations of Physics 26 , 907-917 (1996)

G. Tarozzi, I. Tassani, "The Role of Conscioussnes in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics",special issue of Teorie e Modelli, pp.45-63 (2001)

A.Afriat, "Stati mentali agenti istantaneamente a grande distanza su stati fisici. Un ulteriore paradosso quantistico per la relazione mente-materia", Teorie e Modelli, special issue, pp.45-63 (2005)

C. Calosi, G.Tarozzi,  “Is the Mind a Quantum Computer?” with, Epistemologia , XXXVI, pp. 194-206 (2013)

CHANCE

G.Tarozzi, "Probability and Determinism in Quantum Theory", in Probability in the Sciences, ed. by E. Agazzi, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1988), pp. 237-259

G. Tarozzi, "On the Different Forms of Quantum Acausality", in The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics , ed. by C. Garola e A. Rossi, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1995); pp.435-447

G. Filippini, G.Tarozzi, "Il rifiuto della causalità nella filosofia della fisica prequantistica", Mem. Acc. Naz. Sci. Lett. Arti, Modena , VII, XI, 97-104 (1993)

G. Tarozzi, “L’utopia causale. Dal demone di Laplace alla retroazione del futuro sul passato”, in Utopie. Percorsi per immaginare il futuro, L. Mazzoli and G. Zanchini eds. Codice Edizioni, Torino; pp. 167-192 (2012)

NOTHING

A. Afriat, G. Tarozzi, "Can Nothing Cause Nonlocal Quantum Jumps?", in Quantum Mechanics. Are There Quantum Jumps? ed. by A. Bassi et al., American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York (2006); pp. 3-7

P. Graziani, G. Tarozzi, “Physics, Metaphysics and the Reality of Nothing in Quantum Mechanics”, in Science, Metaphysics and Religion. Proceedings of the 2013 AIPS Conference, ed, by E. Agazzi, Franco Angeli, Milan (2014); p. 117-128

WHOLE

C. Calosi, V. Fano, G. Tarozzi, “Holism as an empirically meaningful metaphysical hypothesis”, , Epistemologia, vol. 35, p. 45-57 (2012)

C. Calosi, G. Tarozzi, “Parthood and Composition in Quantum Mechanics”, with C. Calosi, in Mereology and the Sciences, ed. by C. Calosi and P. Graziani, Berlin: Springer: 53-84 (2014)

REALITY

G. Tarozzi, "Realism as a Meaningful Philosophical Hypothesis", Mem. Acc. Sci. Bologna VII, XIII, 89-98 (1980)

G. Tarozzi, "Realisme d'Einstein et mècanique quantique: un cas de contradiction entre une théorie physique et un hypothèse philosophique clairement définie", Revue de Synthèse 101-102, 125-158 (1981)

G. Tarozzi, "On the Essential Role of the Realist Hypothesis in All Derivations of E.P.R.-type Paradoxes", Epistemologia IV,  407-422 (1981)

G. Tarozzi, "Local Realism and Bell's Theorem Without the Hidden Variable Hypothesis", Mem. Acc. Sci. Torino 108 , 119-124 (1981)

F. Selleri, G. Tarozzi, "A Probabilistic Generalisation of the Concept of Physical Reality", , Speculations in Science and Technology 6, 55-64 (1983)

G. Tarozzi, "Physical Reality: from the Metaphysical Notion to its Empirical Definition", in The Concept of Physical Reality , Zacheropoulos, Atene (1983), pp. 197-215

V. Fano, G. Tarozzi, "Realismo empirico e meccanica quantistica", in Ancora sul realismo , ed. by G. Giuliani, University of Pavia and Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici, Pavia (1995); pp. 144-168

M. Alai, G. Auletta, “Einstein's Local Realism and the Realistic Interpretation of the Wave Function” in Albert Einstein et Hermann Weyl (1955-2005). Questions épistémologiques Ouvertes. p. 33-49, Editions Rue d'Ulm, ISBN: 8861870236 (2009)

C. Sedda, G. Tarozzi,“To See or not to See the Dual Nature of Quantum Objects? Self-Interference of Electrons in Motion Pictures as a Proof of of the Realist Interpretation of the Schrödinger Wave Function” in Proceedings XXX conference SISFA. ed. by R. Mantovani, Argalia, Urbino, pp. 231-238 (2012)

THE MEANING OF PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES

G. Tarozzi,"Science, Metaphysics and Meaningful Philosophical Principles ", Epistemologia, 11 (1988), pp. 97-104 and 229-23

G. Tarozzi, "Interprétation realiste et niveaux de contrôlabilité de la theorie quantique", in L'objectivité dans les differentes sciences ,  ed. by E. Agazzi, Editiones Universitaires, Fribourg (1988), pp. 153-163

G. Tarozzi,"Principi filosofici e principi della fisica. La riapertura delle controversie metafisiche nel dibattito sui fondamenti della meccanica quantistica", in Lezioni in memoria di Giuliano Preparata, with M. Pera, M. Fleischmann, E. Del Giudice, Bibliopolis, Napoli (2006); pp. 21-39

G. Tarozzi, “Logical Positivism, Quantum Mechanics and the Meaning of Philosophical Principles”, in The Controversial Relations between Science and Philosophy, ed. by G. Auletta, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City (2006); pp. 129-166

G. Tarozzi, “Fisica, metafisica e criteri di conferma empirici, Giornale di fisica, vol. 50, p. 51-61 (2009)

During classes the teacher will specify which texts are strictly required for the exam and which ones are not. Some texts will be available on the Blended learning webpage of the course. Should any text be unavailable contact the teacher. 

Assessment

Oral exam. Non Italian students will  be allowed to use English for all their required reading and for the final exam.

During classes the teachers will specify which texts are strictly required for the exam and which ones are not.

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

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