Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
BIOCHIMICA MEDICA

A.Y. Credits
2022/2023 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Luigia Rossi From Monday to Friday by appointment via e-mail
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Nutritional Biology (LM-6)
Curriculum: Percorso comune
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

Educational goals
The Medical biochemistry course aims to capture the student with the knowledge of the major metabolic pathways (anabolic and catabolic) of organs and tissues of the human organism and their interactions. The course will enable students to integrate knowledge derived from basic scientific disciplines; this integration, which relates to notions molecular, anatomical and physiological, will be essential to reach a complete view of the human body functions in normal and pathological conditions. The reference to the word "medical" or "clinic", when present, is mostly used to strengthen the biological significance of the explained biochemical process

Program

Topics
 

1. The liver
1.1 Introduction to the biochemistry of the liver
1.2 Metabolism of fructose and galactose and related diseases
1.3 Fate of glucose in conditions of hyperglycemia
1.4 Hormonal regulation of glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis
1.5 Glycogen storage disases
1.6 Gluconeogenesis and source of the starting involved molecules
1.7 Synthesis of ketone bodies and their use by extrahepatic tissues
1.8 Ketogenic diet, hepilepsy and cancer
1.9 Interrelationships among tissues during fasting
1.10 Comparison between fasting and type 1 diabetes
1.11 Diet rich in carbohydrates and hepatic lipogenesis
1.12 Synthesis of cholesterol and regulation of its intracellular concentration
1.13 Hypercholesterolemy: diet and therapeutic strategies
1.14 Function and fate of lipoproteins
1.15 Fate of protein taken with food
1.16 Entry of amino groups into hepatocyte
1.17 Toxicity of ammonia and organication of ammonium ion
1.18 Role of the liver in the metabolism of amino acids in the fasting state, low-calorie and high protein diet and in hypercatabolic conditions
1.19 Phenylketonuria: biochemical bases and therapeutic strategies
1.20 Liver and detoxification reactions
1.21 Metabolism of ethanol
1.22 Metabolic disorders induced by a high consumption of ethanol

2. The adipose tissue
2.1 General characteristics of adipose tissue
2.2 Lipogenesis, lipolysis and liponeogenesis
2.3 Lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase
2.4 Cycle of triacylglycerol and gliceroloneogenesis
2.5 The adipose tissue as a secretory organ of adipokines
2.6 Leptin and adiponectin
2.7 Adiponectin, AMPK and metabolic syndrome
2.8 Thermogenesis

3. The muscle tissue
3.1 Structural organization of skeletal muscle
3.2 Metabolic characteristics of the different muscle fibers
3.3 Synthesis of creatine and related diseases
3.4 Metabolism of nucleotides
3.5 Energy sources in aerobic and anaerobic activity
 

4. The metabolic interrelationships
4.1 State of good nutrition: the liver lipogenic and interrelations between bowel, pancreas, brain, adipose tissue and muscle tissue
4.2 State of fasting: the glucogenic liver and the interrelations between pancreas, brain, adipose tissue and muscle tissue
4.3 State of prolonged fasting or diabetes mellitus: interrelations between liver, adipose tissue and muscle tissue

Laboratory activities related to the techniques for the genotyping of a mouse model of phenylketonuria are planned

Bridging Courses

Preliminary examinations are not required

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

D1 - Knowledge and understanding

The student must show the possession of the basic knowledge on the main biochemical processes occurring in different tissues. In particular, the metabolic interrelationships among the various tissues in the fasting state and normal or unbalanced diets must be known. The student must also have an overall knowledge of the main metabolic pathways specific to the different tissues that form the basis of their correct functionality and that permit also to understand the biochemical basis of some metabolic diseases.

D2 - Applying knowledge and understanding

The student will be able to use the reached knowledge to make reasoning according to logic of the teaching and must demonstrate that he/she has the ability to acquire the information of the discipline.

D3 - Making judgements

The student must demonstrateto to arrive at autonomous reflections, to formulate scientifically supported hypotheses and, in particular, to produce independent judgments on the subject matter of the study.

D4 - Communication skills

The student will be able to use of the most correct terminology to communicate their knowledge, ideas, problems and solutions in a clear and appropriate way, both to field experts and to non-specialist subjects.

D5 - Learning skills
The student must demonstrate aptitude for an independent study of medical biochemistry, to be able to consult and understand scientific texts, including innovative ones, bibliographic updates and regulatory, in order to be able to best fulfill their future work.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

The material used during the lessons of the entire course will be visible online and therefore available to all students on the appropriate platform Moodle › blended.uniurb.it


Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Lecturers

The teaching will be integrated with reading and collective discussion of recent international scientific publications on topics of particular interest

Innovative teaching methods

- Problem-based learning

- Learning by doing

- Integrate language and content learning

Attendance

It is not scheduled obligation to frequency; it is strongly recommended

Students need to have adequate knowledge of the main topics in Biochemistry

Course books
  • Biochimica medica - Siliprandi e Tettamanti - Piccin Editori - 2018
  • Biochimica medica - M. Lieberman e A. Marks - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - 2010
  • Marks' Basic medical biochemistry, a clinical approach - M. Lieberman and Alisa Peet - Wolters Kluver - 5th edition - 2018
  • Biochimica per le discipline biomediche - John W. Baynes e Marek H. Dominiczak - Elsevier - 2011
  • I principi di biochimica di Lehninger - David L. Nelson e Michael M. Cox - Zanichelli - Sixth edition 2014

Slides used during the lessons of the whole course will be visible online and thus available to all students.

The teacher will provide additional material consisting in recent scientific publications on some topics

Texts are not to be studied in their entirety; the parts of interest are those relating to the topics covered during the lessons and that are clearly identifiable by the material provided online

Assessment

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination; the choice of this method of assessment is considered by the teacher the most suitable for evaluating the acquired knowledge and the student's ability to analyze concepts in a logical and critical manner. Since the course of medical biochemistry is largely based on metabolic interrelations, and on subjects closely related to each other, only through oral examination it will be possible to evaluate the student's ability to coordinate such knowledge and to deal with it correctly the proposed situations and issues. The oral examination will have an average duration of approximately 30 minutes and will cover at least 3 different topics discussed in the course to verify the level of knowledge the student has achieved with regard to the training aims previously indicated. In particular, within each subject, the teacher will frequently interview to ask for explanations and details about what the student has to say in order to better assess the level of depth and comprehension achieved. Particular emphasis will be given to the ability to exhibit in terms of the appropriate terminology and to the logical capacities that will allow the student to argue in his own way and in its entirety the subject matter of the examination application. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieth and for its determination account will be taken , in the light of the foregoing considerations, of the knowledge of the arguments, their exposure, the ability to reason and the ability to make connections between the metabolic processes of the various organs / tissues, all of which will lead, in order of value, at the final score.

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

Non-attending students will have the same teaching material of the attendants (slides and additional teaching material) in order to achieve the objectives of the course

Attendance

Students need to have adequate knowledge of the main topics in biochemistry

Course books
  • Biochimica medica - Siliprandi e Tettamanti - Piccin Editori - 2018
  • Biochimica medica - M. Lieberman e A. Marks - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - 2010
  • Marks' Basic medical biochemistry, a clinical approach - M. Lieberman and Alisa Peet - Wolters Kluver - 5th edition - 2018
  • Biochimica per le discipline biomediche - John W. Baynes e Marek H. Dominiczak - Elsevier - 2011
  • I principi di biochimica di Lehninger - David L. Nelson e Michael M. Cox - Zanichelli - Eight edition 2022

Slides used during the lessons of the whole course will be visible online and thus available to all students.

The teacher will provide additional material consisting in recent scientific publications on some topics

Texts are not to be studied in their entirety; The parts of interest are those relating to the topics covered during the lessons and that are clearly identifiable by the material provided online


  •  
Assessment

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination; the choice of this method of assessment is considered by the teacher the most suitable for evaluating the acquired knowledge and the student's ability to analyze concepts in a logical and critical manner. Since the course of medical biochemistry is largely based on metabolic interrelations, and on subjects closely related to each other, only through oral examination it will be possible to evaluate the student's ability to coordinate such knowledge and to deal with it correctly the proposed situations and issues. The oral examination will have an average duration of approximately 30 minutes and will cover at least 3 different topics discussed in the course to verify the level of knowledge the student has achieved with regard to the training aims previously indicated. In particular, within each subject, the teacher will frequently interview to ask for explanations and details about what the student has to say in order to better assess the level of depth and comprehension achieved. Particular emphasis will be given to the ability to exhibit in terms of the appropriate terminology and to the logical capacities that will allow the student to argue in his own way and in its entirety the subject matter of the examination application. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieth and for its determination account will be taken , in the light of the foregoing considerations, of the knowledge of the arguments, their exposure, the ability to reason and the ability to make connections between the metabolic processes of the various organs / tissues, all of which will lead, in order of value, at the final score.

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

Notes

The student can request to sit the final exam in English with an alternative bibliography.

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