## PHYSICS FISICA

A.Y. Credits
2022/2023 8
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Filippo Martelli At the end of each lecture, according to the time schedule, or making a specific appointment
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English Spanish French
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

### Assigned to the Degree Course

Biological Sciences (L-13)
Curriculum: PERCORSO COMUNE
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

### Learning Objectives

The course is devoted to the presentation of the foundations of classical physics. Physics laws are proposed highlighting the experimental scientifiìc method that is the base for the study of nature's laws. Whenever possible connections with contemporary research are presented as well. Relevance is also given to simple problem solving.

### Program

1. Introduction
1.1 Scientific method
1.2 Measurements and errors
1.3 Physical quantities and units

2 Kinematics
2.1 Average and continuous velocity and acceleration: straight uniform motion and motion with uniform acceleration.
2.2 Motion in space: tangent and centripetal acceleration.
2.3 Uniform circular motion
2.4 Combination motions

3 Principles of dynamics
3.1 Principle of relativity and of inertia principio
3.2 Inertial reference frames
3.3 Empirical derivation of the second law of dynamics
3.4 Third law of dynamics

4 Forces
4.1 Fundamental interactions
4.2 Universal gravitational law
4.3 Inertial forces
4.4 Ropes and constraints
4.5 Statical and dynamical friction
4.6 Elastic forces and harmonic oscillator
4.7 Waves: mathematical description, superposition, interference. Vibrating string. Beat.

5 Work and energy
5.1 Work
5.2 Work and kinetic energy
5.3 Potential energy eand conservative forces
5.4 Mechanical energy conservation

6 6 System dynamics
6.1 Centre of mass motion.
6.2 Conservation of momentum. Elastic collision on fixed target.
6.3 Angular momentum and torque. Angular momentum conservation.
6.4 Space and angular variables. Moment of inertia and angular motion.

7 Fluids
7.1 Fluiodostatics: Stevin's law and Archimede's principle
7.2 Dynamics of fluids: Bernoulli's theorem and consequences
7.3 Dynamics of viscous fluids: Hagen-Poiseuille's law
7.4 Surface tension: Laplace's law and capillarity

8 Thermometry and calorimetry
8.1 Definition of temperature and thermometric scales
8.2 Heat and calorimetric measurements
8.3 Thermal capacity, specific heat and latent heath
8.4 Heath propagation

9 First law of thermodynamics
9.1 Joule's experience and the first law
9.2 Internal energy
9.3 Ideal gas: first law application to the main ideal gas transformations
9.4 Kinetic model of an ideal gas

10 Second law of thermodynamics
10.1 Clausius e Kelvin's statements and their equivalence
10.2 Heat engines: efficiency and reversibility
10.3 Carnot heat engine
10.4 Carnot theorem on the efficiency of heat engines
10.5 Clausius integral and entropy
10.6 Main thermodynamical potentials

11 Electromagnetism
11.1 Coulomb force and electric field.
11.2 Capacitance. Parallel plate capacitor.
11.3 Electric current and Ohm's law. Series and parallel resistors. Power dissipation.
11.4 Lorentz force. Magnetic fields generation. Solenoids.
11.5 Faraday-Lenz law. Induction and self-induction.
11.6 Elettromagnetic waves: Maxwell's equations.

12 Optics
12.1 Electromagnetic spectrum.
12.2 Reflection and refraction: Snell's law
12.3 Thin lens equation
12.4 Focal lenght: images from a biconvex lens
12.5 Main optical instruments

### Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

• D1 - Knowledge and understanding - The student should possess a proper knowledge of the main physical laws and of the interconnections between them, as well as of the experiments and processes leading to their formulation.
• D2 - Applying knowledge and understanding - The student should be able to apply the main physical laws to understand common natural phenomena, even when these are not directly relevant for physics but also, for example, for biology. Knowledge must be used also for problem solving.
• D3 - Making judgements - The student must show a proper autonomy in his knowledge, not simply recalling it by heart.
• D4 - Communicaion skills -  The use of an appropriate scientific language is required.
• D5 - Learning skills - The ability of autonomous deeper study of one ore more topics is appreciated.

### Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

### Supporting Activities

10 hours of exercises addressed to problem solving

### Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Lectures

Attendance

A good knowledge of algebra, trigonometry and the capability of solving equations and systems of equations is required, as well as the basic differential calculus.

Course books

Slides of the lectures (available in the Moodle platform)

- P.R. Kesten, D.L. Tauck, Fondamenti di Fisica, Bologna, Zanichelli

or

- Giancoli, Fisica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
- D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fondamenti di Fisica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Assessment

The written examination consists in solving three problems abut mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Students reaching a sufficient mark must afford the oral examination, where at least three questions will be asked in order to clarify the mistakes done in the written examination and to evaluate the remaining part of the program and the achievements in the other skills.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

### Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

Lectures

Attendance

A good knowledge of algebra, trigonometry and the capability of solving equations and systems of equations is required, as well as the basic differential calculus.

Course books

Slides of the lectures (available in the Moodle platform)

- P.R. Kesten, D.L. Tauck, Fondamenti di Fisica, Bologna, Zanichelli

or

- Giancoli, Fisica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
- D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fondamenti di Fisica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Assessment

The written examination consists in solving three problems abut mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Students reaching a sufficient mark must afford the oral examination, where at least three questions will be asked in order to clarify the mistakes done in the written examination and to evaluate the remaining part of the program and the achievements in the other skills.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

### Notes

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