Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


MOLECULAR BASIS OF MUSCLE ADAPTATION TO EXERCISE
BASI MOLECOLARI DELL'ADATTAMENTO MUSCOLARE ALL'ESERCIZIO FISICO

A.Y. Credits
2023/2024 8
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Giosuè Annibalini from Monday to Friday (by appointment: giosue.annibalini@uniurb.it)
Teaching in foreign languages
Course partially taught in a foreign language English
This course is taught partially in Italian and partially in a foreign language. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Sport Sciences (LM-68)
Curriculum: PERCORSO COMUNE
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The aim of the course is to provide students with in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations induced by the different types of exercise and training. The main molecular biology techniques used for the study of interactions between genes and the environment on the metabolism of physical exercise and muscle gene and protein expression will be described. Particular attention will be paid to the molecular aspects related to sports performance.

Program

The course consists of 21 lessons of two hours each. The organization of the lessons is as follows:

INTRODUCTION TO THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF EXERCISE [6 lessons]

Molecular biology applied to exercise and sport

- brief historical notes

- sport and exercise genetics

- animal models

The methods used in the molecular biology of physical exercise

- DNA isolation and genetic analysis

- the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

- muscle biopsy

- isolation and analysis of nucleic acids from muscle biopsy

- isolation and analysis of proteins from muscle biopsy

- muscle cell models

GENETICS AND SPORT [6 lessons]

Inheritance of traits related to sports performance

- nature (genetics) versus nurture (environment)

- the variability of traits related to exercise and sport

- how to estimate heritability

- comparison of the individual genome with the reference one

- DNA variants associated with sports performance

- genetic tests

- gene therapy and genetic doping

Genetic traits associated with strength and muscle mass

- variation in strength and muscle mass in the population

- heritability of strength and muscle mass

- transgenic mouse models for the study of genes related to the development of strength and muscle mass

- main genetic polymorphisms associated with the development of strength and muscle mass

Genetic traits associated with endurance

- the ability to endurance: a polygenetic trait

- heritability of Vo2max, improvement of Vo2max and muscle fiber type

- transgenic mouse models for the study of endurance-related genes

- main genetic polymorphisms associated with endurance

Main epigenetic changes related to sports performance

- epigenetic adjustments in acute and chronic endurance sports

- epigenetic adjustments in acute and chronic strength sports

THE INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PATHWAYS AND MUSCLE ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE [4 lessons]

The nature of exercise and the different molecular responses

- step 1: molecular signals

- step 2: the sensors

- step 3: the signal transduction

- step 4: the effectors

- the integration between the different signaling pathways and the potential interfering effect

- the mimetics of the exercise

MOLECULAR ADAPTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIFFERENT EXERCISE TYPES [6 lessons]

Molecular adaptations in the exercise of strength

- pathway of mTORC1, growth factors and amino acids in the adaptations induced by strength exercises

- myostatin

- satellite cells in muscle development and repair

Molecular adaptations in endurance exercise

- signals involved in cardiovascular responses

- regulation of muscle plasticity

- PGC-1α and signal transduction pathways in endurance exercises

- mtDNA

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND SPORTS NUTRITION [6 lessons]

Carbohydrates

- glucose uptake and glycogen reserves in response to the ingestion of carbohydrates

- use of glucose during exercise

- use of glucose in post-exercise and restoration of glycogen reserves

Lipids and lipid adaptation

- phases of lipid adaptation

- molecular changes induced by lipid adaptation

Amino acids and proteins

- regulation of protein turnover

- use of amino acids and protein synthesis

- leucine

- supplementation with proteins in strength sports

- supplementation with proteins in endurance sports

Bridging Courses

None

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

The student will have to know the basic concepts relating to molecular biology and current knowledge of the genetic aspects and changes in gene expression induced by the various types of exercise and training.

The student must be able to re-elaborate what has been studied and deepen their knowledge in a critical way. In addition to texts and the teaching material, indications for finding other material for the study such as scientific articles and presentations in international conferences on the topics covered during the course will be provided.

The student will have to progressively acquire the ability to refine and deepen their knowledge by transforming the knowledge learned into innovative and original operational proposals.

The student will have to acquire autonomy of judgment, a strong critical sense, and maturity to allow him to read and present his knowledge using clear and complete language.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

none


Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Frontal lesson

Innovative teaching methods

Discussion on specific topics will be proposed that can be carried out individually and in groups during the course. Students will have scientific publications, seminars and presentations at national and international conferences available on the University's Moodle platform. This material will be used to develop short presentations also through using the practice of the "flipped lesson" and "debate".

Attendance

There is no obligation to attend lessons

Course books

-Titolo: Fondamenti di biologia molecolare, Lizabeth A. Allison. Seconda edizione italiana condotta sulla terza edizione americana A cura di Daniela Taverna. Anno pubblicazione 2023

-Title: Molecular Exercise Physiology: an Introduction; Authors: Adam P Sharples, Henning Wackerhage, James P Morton, Henning Wackerhage; Secon Edition. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis 2022.

-Slides and other teaching material can be found on the moodle platform

Assessment

The oral exam consists of an interview aimed at verifying the adequacy of knowledge and skills of the topics covered during the course. The oral exam will evaluate not only knowledge but also judgment and communication skills. In addition to being able to express the theoretical concepts presented in class, the student will have to demonstrate their complete understanding through appropriate examples and applications to the different types of exercises.

The evaluation criteria are the following: - relevance of the answers in relation to the contents of the programme; - ability to synthesize and grasp the fundamental aspects of the question; - correctness of the disciplinary language used.

Each of the criteria is evaluated on the basis of a multi-level scale of values. The final evaluation is expressed in thirtieths.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

The program and teaching materials are the same for both attending and non attending students

Attendance

There is no obligation to attend lessons

Course books

-Title: Biologia molecolare del gene; Authors: Alexander Gann, James D. Watson, Tania A. Baker, Stephen P. Bell, Michael Levine, Richard Losick; Curatore: P. Plevani; Editore: Zanichelli; pubblication year: 2022

-Title: Molecular Exercise Physiology: an Introduction; Authors: Adam P Sharples, Henning Wackerhage, James P Morton, Henning Wackerhage; Secon Edition. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis 2022.

-Slides and other teaching material can be found on the moodle platform

Assessment

The oral exam consists of an interview aimed at verifying the adequacy of knowledge and skills of the topics covered during the course. The oral exam will evaluate not only knowledge but also judgment and communication skills. In addition to being able to express the theoretical concepts presented in class, the student will have to demonstrate their complete understanding through appropriate examples and applications to the different types of exercises.

The evaluation criteria are the following: - relevance of the answers in relation to the contents of the programme; - ability to synthesize and grasp the fundamental aspects of the question; - correctness of the disciplinary language used.

Each of the criteria is evaluated on the basis of a multi-level scale of values. The final evaluation is expressed in thirtieths.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

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