Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
BIOCHIMICA DELLA NUTRIZIONE

A.Y. Credits
2023/2024 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Laura Chiarantini
Teaching in foreign languages
Course partially taught in a foreign language English
This course is taught partially in Italian and partially in a foreign language. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Nutritional Biology (LM-6)
Curriculum: Percorso comune
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course aims to provide the student with the basic biochemical and nutritional elements for understanding the role of nutrients contained in foods commonly used in human nutrition. It also intends to provide the basis for understanding the main nutritional-based metabolic dysfunctions.

Program

1) Food and nutrition. Use and meaning of terms. Nutritional principles. Nutritional standards and food guidelines. LARN, safety intervals and food intake adequacy, and food pyramid. Definition of food and food classes. Macronutrients and micronutrients.

2) Digestive System. Mouth, Saliva, Stomach, Gastric Juice, Gastrointestinal Hormones, Small Intestine, Exocrine Pancreas, Pancreatic Juice, Pancreatic Enzymes, Gallbladder, Bile, Intestinal Villi, Stool Formations

3) Carbohydrates. Biochemical and nutritional classification of carbohydrates; main carbohydrates introduced with the diet and their energy value; Digestion and absorption. Carbohydrate metabolism. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and their biochemical significance. Insulin, Glucagon and Adrenaline. Sweeteners. Role of available carbohydrates. Starch retrogradation. Dietary fiber. Solubility, viscosity and fermentability of dietary fibers. Beneficial and negative effects of fiber. Recommended intake levels. Food sources. Dietary fiber and health.

4) Lipids. Classification and chemical composition. Main lipids introduced with the diet and energy value. Fatty acids of nutritional interest: saturated and unsaturated, essential fatty acids, trans fatty acids. Lipid requirement. Mobilization of triacylglycerol reserves. Dietary cholesterol and endogenous cholesterol: cholesterol balance in the body. Digestion and absorption. Transport of cholesterol and other lipids by plasma lipoproteins. Non-pharmacological control of cholesterolemia. Thermogenesis. Regulation of gene expression of lipogenic enzymes induced by a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

5) Protides. Nutritional significance and energy value. Amino acids: functional, nutritional and metabolic classification. Metabolic fates of amino acids: glucogenic, ketogenic and mixed amino acids. Protein turnover. Nutritional value of proteins and regulation of the nitrogen balance. Complementation of dietary proteins. Protein requirement. Phenylketonuria. Celiac disease.


6) Water. Exogenous water and endogenous water. Water requirement. Total water content of the organism. Water losses of the organism. Alterations of water balance. Water as a food. 7) Ethyl alcohol. Alcoholic beverages. Absorption and distribution of ethanol. Metabolism of ethanol: alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, microsomal system, catalase. Metabolic alterations induced by ethanol on glucose and lipid metabolism. Alcohol and pregnancy. Methanol.

8) Metabolic regulation. Distribution of energy reserves. Metabolic regulation in the liver. Muscle, heart, kidney, brain, adipose tissue. Hormonal regulation. Metabolic adaptations in calorie restriction and fasting. Hormonal regulation in fasting.9) Food toxicity. Xenobiotics and their metabolism. Detoxification mechanisms. Cytochrome P450. Compounds with negative effects. Antinutrients and toxic molecules in natural foods.Drug Food Interaction.

Bridging Courses

There are no prerequisites, but it is recommended that the student has already taken:

Medical Biochemistry and Physiology of Nutrition

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

D1- KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

In order to pass this course, the student must demonstrate that he has acquired knowledge about:

-composition, nutritional value and biochemical significance of foods;

-interactions between food components major and minor (macronutrients, vitamins, phytochemicals, oligonutrients, fibers, etc.);

-relationship between diet, nutrition and health, based on an understanding of the specific metabolic role of the different classes of nutrients and bioactive compounds present in foods.

D2-APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

The student must demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and theories provided by the course.

D3-MAKING JUDGEMENTS

The student must demonstrate that he must be able to:

-transfer to scientific contexts the theoretical information acquired in the course, in order to get useful goods and services;

-valorize food containing bioactive compounds designed to prevent diseases of high social impact typical of industrialized countries;

-analyze, discuss and perform simple correlations of data or assumptions.

D4-COMMUNICATION

In order to play a proper nutritional information the student must demonstrate the ability to:

-use a proper and specific language and also the knowledge to support interdisciplinary arguments

-discuss and communicate the effects of metabolic factors on food quality and safety and their impact on health.

D5-LIFELONG LEARNING SKILLS

The student must be able to consult and understand scientific texts, bibliographic updates, current normative, in order to employ them in unusual contexts for the profession and for research. 

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

The teaching material prepared by the teacher in addition to the recommended texts can be found on the Moodle platform


Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Frontal lessons

The teaching will be integrated with international scientific publications on topics of particular interest in the field of teaching.

Innovative teaching methods
Attendance

Attendance at lessons is not compulsory, but it is strongly recommended.

Course books

Recommended texts to choose from:

U.LEUZZI, E. BELLOCCO, D.BARRECA, Biochimica della Nutrizione. Zanichelli Editore, 2013.

G.ARIENTI, le basi molecolari della nutrizione. PICCIN editore 2016.

Assessment

The learning outcomes will be ascertained through an oral interview; the choice of this method of assessment is considered by the teacher the most suitable for evaluating the knowledge acquired and the student's ability to analyze the assimilated concepts in a logical and critical way. The oral interview will have an average duration of about 30 minutes and will begin with a topic chosen by the student, followed by further questions that will focus on topics covered in the course to verify the level of knowledge achieved by the student in relation to the objectives. formative previously indicated. Particular emphasis will be given both to the exhibition skills in terms of appropriate terminology and to the logical skills. The evaluation is expressed out of thirty and for the determination of the grade the teacher will take into account: knowledge of the topics, exposure, reasoning ability and connection between metabolic processes

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

Non-attending students will have the same teaching material as attending students (slides and additional teaching material) available in order to achieve the objectives of the course

Course books

Recommended texts to choose from:

U.LEUZZI, E. BELLOCCO, D.BARRECA, Biochimica della Nutrizione. Zanichelli Editore, 2013.

G.ARIENTI, le basi molecolari della nutrizione. PICCIN editore 2016.

Assessment

The learning outcomes will be ascertained through an oral interview; the choice of this method of assessment is considered by the teacher the most suitable for evaluating the knowledge acquired and the student's ability to analyze the assimilated concepts in a logical and critical way. The oral interview will have an average duration of about 30 minutes and will begin with a topic chosen by the student, followed by further questions that will focus on topics covered in the course to verify the level of knowledge achieved by the student in relation to the objectives. formative previously indicated. Particular emphasis will be given both to the exhibition skills in terms of appropriate terminology and to the logical skills. The evaluation is expressed out of thirty and for the determination of the grade the teacher will take into account: knowledge of the topics, exposure, reasoning ability and connection between metabolic processes

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

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