Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2024/2025 8
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Federica Palazzi The lecturer receives by appointment to be arranged by email at the following address: federica.palazzi@uniurb.it
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Economics and Management (L-18 / L-33)
Curriculum: generico
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course aims to provide the concepts and the theoretical and applied bases necessary to understand the logic of the functioning of the business system concerning methods of management, organization, business decision-making, and methods of recording business operations. 

To this end, the course provides the terminology, theoretical knowledge, and methodological tools necessary for the study and understanding of the following aspects: the institutional characteristics of the company (and in particular, the production company), its constituent elements, the models of management that characterize it, the main operating logics, the conditions of economic equilibrium and profitability, the double-entry method of recording external management facts, the method of keeping general accounts for the quantitative determination of the company.


The course comprises Business Administration (theoretical principles and models) and Accounting Applications (accounting and quantitative determinations). 
Part I: Business Administration
- Overview of economics and accounting
- The nature of the economic problem: the relationship between needs, goods, economic activity, and the role of firms
- The institutions that carry out the economic activity are households, production enterprises (firms), public enterprises, and non-profit enterprises.

- Definition of the firm and its main subsystems (people, goods, processes).
- The business system and its relations with stakeholders and the environment.
- Classification criteria and types of enterprises.
- The institutional structure of businesses: legal entity and economic entity.
- The decision-making structure and management models.
- The human subsystem: organization and human resource management (organizational models).
- The assets subsystem consists of capital, qualitative (inventory), and quantitative (balance sheet) configurations, working capital, and capital configurations.
- The operations subsystem: management and the role of the information system.

- The concept of capital: composition and presentation (Statement of Assets and Liabilities)
- Total income and operating income. The profit and loss account and the determination of operating income.
- The principle of economic profitability.
- Economic equilibrium. The remuneration of the factors of production. The business risk.
- Investments and financial needs. The different sources of financing are risk capital, debt capital, and self-financing.

Part II: Accounting 
- The recording of business transactions and the double-entry method.
- Value added tax and mandatory accounting ledgers.
- The purchase of goods with simple fecundity.
- Purchases of services.
- Sales of goods and services.
- Receipts and payments.
- Employment.
- Intangible and tangible assets.
- Financial liabilities.
- Founding of the companies.
- Adjustment entries.
- Closing entries for the profit and loss account and general closing entries.
- The reopening of the accounts.

Bridging Courses

The teaching is preparatory to the following courses: 
Business Administration and Accounting II 
Planning and Controlling
Business auditing

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

 - Knowledge and understanding. Students should have acquired knowledge of the conceptual foundations, theoretical principles, and methodological tools of business studies and accounting. In particular, students should have a good command of the topics covered in the course and understand what economic activity consists of and by whom it is carried out; what the characteristics of an enterprise and the peculiarities of the operation of the enterprise system; how enterprises are classified; what an enterprise is, how it relates to the environment and stakeholders, what are its basic patterns of behavior and operation, and what are the main economic and financial aspects that characterize it; the role of the enterprise information system; how the main external management facts are recorded in general ledger accounting using the double-entry method. These skills will be tested through written and oral questions.

- Applied knowledge and understanding. Students are expected to be able to apply the knowledge they have acquired appropriately and flexibly to the issues and problems of the business environment based on the cognitive schemes of business studies and to understand the general characteristics of enterprises, the economic and financial aspects of the enterprise and its patterns of behavior and operation. They should be able to record external management facts employing general accounting using the double-entry method. These skills will be tested through written and oral questions and exercises.

- Autonomy of judgment. Students should be able to link the knowledge acquired during the course into integrated and coherent schemes and to deal with complex problems independently and with their judgment. They should have acquired the ability to critically evaluate proposed solutions and correctly interpret the issues addressed. These skills will be stimulated as much as possible by the teacher, who will propose in-depth studies through audiovisual materials, seminars, and targeted questions during the lectures to encourage the students’ active participation.

- Communication skills. Students are expected to be able to use business and accounting terminology appropriately and to demonstrate a good command of the vocabulary related to the topics covered during the course. The lecturer will seek to encourage classroom interaction to develop communication skills.

- Learning skills. Students must have developed good study skills, enabling them to master the topics covered during the course and to acquire the theoretical, conceptual, and methodological foundations essential for the successful continuation of their studies and professional preparation. Students must have acquired a good degree of autonomy in the study of the discipline, in the interpretation of business phenomena, and in the identification of business processes that are useful for deepening their knowledge of the topics covered. Students must demonstrate that they can use the study material provided by the lecturer correctly and profitably.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

Theoretical teaching is supplemented by exercises in the General Accounting program. 
During the course, the lecturer will organize mock examinations to allow students to self-assess their learning and the effectiveness of their method of studying the subject concerning the syllabus so far. A mid-term examination will be held (in the time slots provided in the course schedule) in the first part of the course, i.e., on business administration topics (mainly multiple-choice questions).

Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment


The course will use the following teaching methods

- lectures;

- practice exercises;

- interactive presentations using Wooclap.

Innovative teaching methods

Teaching adopts innovative methods: problem-based learning, learning by doing, and debate.


There is no obligation to attend. However, attendance is strongly recommended. The subject requires acquiring a specific technical language, the ability to abstract concepts, and the concrete application of certain methodological tools. Therefore, it is advisable to attend the lectures regularly to facilitate the gradual acquisition of the subject and its terminology.

Course books

1. M. Paoloni, P. Paoloni (2021), Introduzione e orientamento allo studio delle aziende, Seconda Edizione, Giappichelli, Torino (EXCLUDING CHAPTERS 8 - 9).

2. G. Savioli, M. Bartolini (2023), Contabilità d’impresa, Franco Angeli (EXCLUDING SECTIONS 3.3 Acquisti su mercati esteri, 5.3 Vendite su mercati esteri, 6.6 Incasso di crediti mediante factoring, 7.6 Altre remunerazioni di lavoro dipendente, 8.5. I costi successivi all’acquisto; 8.6. I contributi dello Stato e di altri enti pubblici, 8.7. Le svalutazioni e le rivalutazioni di ripristino; 8.8. Le rivalutazioni economiche e monetarie, 10.3.2. Prestiti obbligazionari; 10.3.3. Le obbligazioni convertibili; 10.4. Altri finanziamenti, 11.4 Le operazioni di compravendita delle azioni proprie, Premi e provvigioni da liquidare; 12.5. Le rilevazioni contabili derivanti da altre operazioni di valutazione delle poste patrimoniali, EXCLUDING CHAPTER XIII: LE IMPOSTE SUL REDDITO D’IMPRESA).


The expected learning outcomes will be assessed by a written and oral test on the same day (subject to the number of students registered for the examination). Only the use of a calculator is permitted during the written test.

The WRITTEN TEST lasts 90 minutes and consists of 6 general accounting exercises, 1 business economics exercise, 1 open question, and 3 multiple-choice questions. Candidates will be admitted to the oral test if they score at least 18/30 on the written test.
The written test will be marked out of thirty according to the following criteria 1) correctness of the entries in the ledger; 2) correctness of the entries in the general ledger; 3) correctness of the use and classification of the accounts; 4) correctness of the calculations; 5) correctness of the answers to the questions posed, indicating the level of mastery of the knowledge acquired; 6) degree of articulation of the answer.

The ORAL TEST may contain a maximum of 3 open questions on the entire course program. 
Answers will be marked according to the following criteria:
- coherence between question and answer;
- level of knowledge of the concepts; 
- degree of articulation of the answer; 
- degree of appropriateness of the explanation; 
- the provision of relevant examples;
- command of the specific language.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students


For non-attending students, the same procedures, obligations, study texts, and assessment methods apply to attending students.


Students are called to carefully consider all information provided relative to the course.

Course books

Same (see the exam program above for attending students)


Same (see information for attending students)

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.


The examination and bibliography may be in English on request. In that case, the examination will be oral.

- Marchini P.L. (2023), Business Administration and Accounting, Giappichelli: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 (only 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5).

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