## PHYSICS OF THE EARTH FISICA TERRESTRE

A.Y. Credits
2024/2025 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Stefano Santini after lesson hours
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

### Assigned to the Degree Course

Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

### Learning Objectives

The course aims to provide to the students the fundamental theoretical concepts of Solid Earth Geophysics

### Program

1. Gravity - Gravitation. The Earth's rotation. The Earth's shape.

2. Gravimetry - Earth's gravitational field. The gravitational potential. The rotating solid body. The ellipsoid of rotation. The geoid. Deviation from vertical. Absolute measures of gravity. Relative measures. Theory of gravity. Linear gravimeter and astatic gravimeter. Worden gravimeter and Western gravimeter; sensitivity and measuring range. Instrument calibration: determination of the scale factor. Measures of gravity reduction: reduction in free air; Bouguer correction; topographic correction.

3. Magnetism - The physics of magnetism. The magnetic field. The magnetic dipole moment induced by an external magnetic field.

4. Geomagnetism - Geo Magnetic Field (GMF). Calculation of magnetic susceptibility. Permanent and induced magnetization. Dia-, para- and ferromagnetism. Antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic substances. Hysteresis cycle. Magnetic variometers. Schmidt balance. Twist magnetometer. Absolute magnetic measures. Related measures. Sensitivity and measuring range. Influence on the measures of the variations in time of GMF: secular variation; GMF variation over long periods of time.

5. Elasticity and viscoelasticity - Elasticity and viscoelasticity notes of materials: stress and strain, wave equations, P waves and S waves, surface waves. Reflections and refractions. Reflection coefficient. Angle of refraction. The Snell's law.

6. Seismic waves - Three-dimensional wave equation. Plane waves. P waves and S waves. Surface waves.

7. Seismic methods of reflection and refraction - The case of two horizontal layers with constant vertical velocity.

### Bridging Courses

"Physics" is strongly suggested.

### Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Possessing of basic scientific knowledge and their main applications in Earth system analysis.

Capacity to apply mathematical and physical fundamental laws to solve geophysical problems.

Capacity to plan surveys and to select data forming evaluations about the geophysical problems.

Capacity to communicate in a logical, concise and rigorous way objectives, concepts and work procedures.

Capacity to learn with safety, autonomy and flexibility.

### Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

### Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Teaching

Frontal lessons and practises.

Course books

I. A.Norinelli, Geofisica Applicata, Casa Editrice Patron, Bologna.

II. E.Boschi, M.Dragoni, Sismologia, Casa Editrice UTET, Torino.

Assessment

Oral examination by a minimum of 3 questions.

Here below the evaluation criteria

•   <  18: skill level not enough

• 18-20: skill level enough

• 21-23: skill level satisfactory

• 24-26: skill level good

• 27-29: skill level very good

• 30-30 with honors: skill level excellent

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

### Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Teaching

Frontal lessons and practises.

Course books

The following materials referring to the same contents of the program are indicated in order to promote full understanding and to give non-attending students the opportunity to compensate what is done during the lessons by independent study

I. A.Norinelli, Geofisica Applicata, Casa Editrice Patron, Bologna.

II. E.Boschi, M.Dragoni, Sismologia, Casa Editrice UTET, Torino.

Assessment

Oral examination.

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

 « back Last update: 25/06/2024

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