Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHIMICA ANALITICA PER I BENI CULTURALI

A.Y. Credits
2020/2021 4
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Giorgio Famiglini On request
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Conservation and Restauration of Cultural Heritage (LMR/02)
Curriculum: PERCORSO COMUNE
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course aims to illustrate the main analytical techniques used for the quali-quantitative determination of the chemical components of artifacts or in environments where they are stored (pollutants).

Program

01 - Presentation of the course. The role of analytical chemistry in the analysis of cultural heritage.

02 - Monitoring of hazardous pollutants and materials analysis. Concepts of analyte, matrix, and sample.

03 - The phases of the chemical analysis. Sampling and sample preparation.

04 - Units of measurement in analytical chemistry. The concepts of concentration and absolute quantity. Precision and accuracy in measurements. Interference and contamination.

05 - Tools for sampling.

06 - Qualitative and quantitative analysis. Calibration. Instrumental and method limits of detection and limits of quantification.

07 - Goals of sample preparation: concentration and purification.

08 - Environmental contaminants dangerous to the historical and artistic material. Sampling and determination of contaminants.

09 - Passive and active samplers. Portable or fixed instrumentation for the determination of NOx, SOx, ozone, hydrocarbons, etc.. Sampling and analysis of the powders.

10 - Principles of microscopy. The optical microscopy and the electronic one. Resolving power. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Sample preparation.

11 - Main components of an electron microscope and operation. The microanalysis and principles of operation.

12 - Principles of spectroscopy. The electromagnetic radiation.

13 - Principles of atomic and molecular absorption and emission. Electronic, vibrational and rotational energy levels.

14 - Absorbance and transmittance. Lambert-Beer law. Absorption and emission spectra.

15 - Structure of a molecular absorption spectrophotometer. Sources in the molecular absorption spectrophotometer. Selectors wavelengths: reticles and prisms. Detectors for spectroscopy. Spectrophotometers in single and double ray.

16 - Fluorescence and fluorescence quantum yield. Fluorescent molecules. Structure of a spectrophotometer for analysis in fluorescence.

17 - Atomic absorption and emission. Atomizers. ICP-MS.

18 - XRF techniques. Laser ablation. Isotopic analysis. Neutronic activation. PIXE and PIGE spectroscopy. Surface analysis techniques.

19 - Applications to the analysis of cultural heritage.

20 - IR and Raman spectroscopy.

21 - X-ray diffractometry

22 - Introduction to chromatographic techniques. The chromatographic process. Separation mechanisms. Partition coefficient. Chromatographic resolution.

23 - Gas chromatography.

24 - Structure of a gas chromatograph. Gas chromatographic columns. Injectors. FID and ECD detectors. Concept of programmed temperature analysis.

25 - Liquid chromatography. Structure of a liquid chromatograph. Columns for liquid chromatography. Injectors. UV-Vis and electrochemical detectors. Concept of gradient elution analysis.

26 - Applications of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography analyses to cultural heritage samples.

27 - Ion exchange chromatography. General principles.

28 - Anion and cation exchange. The electrochemical detector. The concept of suppression of the eluent and types of suppressors. Applications of ion chromatography to cultural heritage samples.

29 - Principles of mass spectrometry. The ionization techniques. The electron ionization. The fragmentation. Source, analyzer and detector. The mass spectrum. The mass spectrometry resolution. GC-MS.

30 - Scan and Selected Ion Monitoring analyses.

31 - Applications of GC-MS to cultural heritage samples.

32 - LC-MS. Electrospray ionization and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization.

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Knowledge and understanding skills. The student will have to know the main analytical techniques available for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the components that make up the artworks: canvases, colors, minerals, metals, glasses, etc. He should also have to know which are the most dangerous substances for the artworks and how they can be monitored in the environment where they are stored. The student should understand the techniques available for sampling, conservation and qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical components and how to apply them to the real samples. The student should be able to determine what instrumentation is best suited to the needs of the work being restored. These skills will be verified through oral questions.

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. The student should be able to correctly use the terminology related to analytical chemistry. He will need to master the concentration units. He will need to know how to choose between sampling techniques, sample handling, and analysis to be applied to a restoration work or to the environment where a artwork is stored. These skills will be verified through oral questions.

Judgment autonomy. The student must be able to make the right decisions on how to deal with an issue related to the analysis of an artwork or to its proper preservation.

Communicative Skills. The student should be able to clearly describe the analytical techniques studied with appropriate terms and appropriate examples.

Learning ability. The student's scientific growth must be critical and autonomous by using the material provided by the teacher and the self-study material to deepen his knowledge.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Didactics

Lectures

Attendance

Knowledge of basic chemistry

Course books

Slides distributed during the course.

R. Cozzi, P. Protti, T. Ruaro, Elementi di Analisi Chimica Strumentale, seconda edizione, Zanichelli.
K.A. Rubinson, J.F. Rubinson, Chimica Analitica Strumentale, Zanichelli.
L. Paolillo, I. Giudicianni, La Diagnostica nei Beni Culturali, Moderni Metodi di Indagine, Longhia.

Assessment

The assessment of learning requires an oral test to verify the student's preparation to choose which chemical-analytical technique is better to use for the analysis of an artwork or of the environment in which it is preserved: framing the problem, sampling, sample handling and analysis. He will also have to demonstrate to know the working principles of analytical techniques, fundamental to make the right choice to his needs. The oral examination is judged by a thirty-plus vote.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Didactics

The same of attending students

Attendance

The same of attending students

Course books

The same of attending students

Assessment

The assessment of learning requires an oral test to verify the student's preparation to choose which chemical-analytical technique is better to use for the analysis of an artwork or of the environment in which it is preserved: framing the problem, sampling, sample handling and analysis. He will also have to demonstrate to know the working principles of analytical techniques, fundamental to make the right choice to his needs. The oral examination is judged by a thirty-plus vote.

« back Last update: 09/07/2020

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